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Bio Write up 2 - I.D 2165-2189 Effectiveness of...

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I.D # 2165-2189 Effectiveness of Carbohydrate Substrates with Yeast Cell Fermentation Alex Spivak BSC2010 L Section #0553 November 16, 2006 Hannah Vander Zanden
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I.D # 2165-2189 Abstract This experiment is intended to analyze the efficiency in which yeast cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae consume carbohydrate substrates of sucrose, glucose, fructose, lactose, starch, and a control of water. In order to generate energy, yeast cells rely on fermentation; an extended catabolic pathway of glycolysis which produces ATP. Producing alcohol and CO 2 as products, the latter was indirectly measured to establish which carbohydrate was the most efficient substrate while in contact with the yeast cells. Sucrose, an energy rich carbohydrate, generated .28 mL of CO 2 per hour, making it the most efficient carbohydrate suspension. Glucose and fructose, smaller monosaccherides, produced moderates amount of CO 2 of .05 and .018 mL per hour respectively. Lastly, the starch and lactose evolved 0.0 mL of CO 2 due to their larger size and inability to enter glycolytic pathway. Introduction In order to survive, all organisms depend on the ability to do work. Whether it is to ingest food, kill prey, or simply breathe, energy is required to perform any kind of action. In order to produce energy, organisms rely on catabolic pathways to decompose organic material. Catabolic pathways involve the decomposition of more complex molecules to that of simpler ones. One key catabolic pathway is cellular respiration; a process in which organic fuel is synthesized in the presence of oxygen to produce ATP. The hydrolysis of ATP,
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I.D # 2165-2189 adenosine triphosphate, releases energy to propel non-spontaneous, energonic reactions within the cell. In cellular respiration, organic fuel is degraded in three metabolic stages; beginning with glycolysis. In glycolysis, glucose molecules are broken down into pyruvate and ATP. When in the presence of oxygen, those products will then enter the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain to produce even more ATP. In this lab, we examined a secondary method of ATP production; fermentation. Fermentation is an extension of glycolysis, which occurs in an anaerobic environment. Such conditions make use of substrate-level phosphorylation in which an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from a substrate molecule to ADP to produce ATP. In fermentation, the pyruvate molecule from glycolysis is converted into alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide, and it generates ATP molecules that the cell can use (Campbell, 1999).
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