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NEUROANATOMY 1 - -WEEK 1 AN INTRODUCTION TO NEUROANATOMY 1...

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----------------WEEK 1: AN INTRODUCTION TO NEUROANATOMY:------------- 1. CNS/ PNS a. Central nervous system (CNS): the part of the vertebrate nervous system that is located within the skull and spine. b. Peripheral nervous system (PNS): the part of the vertebrate nervous system that is located outside the skull and spine. i. Sensory: conducts signals to the CNS from sensory receptors ii. Motor: conducts signals away from the CNS to muscles, glands, and other organs ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2. Gyri/ Sulci/ Fissures/ Cortex a. Gyri (sing. Gyrus): the large ridges, or convolutions, between adjacent fissures. b. Sulci (sing. Sulcus): the small grooves in the cerebral hemispheres. c. Fissures: the large, deep grooves in the cerebral hemispheres. d. Central fissure: The long, deep fissure on the lateral surface of the cerebral hemispheres which runs from the longitudinal fissure down to the lateral fissure. e. Lateral fissure: the long, deep fissure that runs roughly horizontally on the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere on each side. f. Longitudinal fissure: the long, deep fissure which divides the two hemispheres.
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g. Cerebral cortex ( cortex means bark) : the outer layer of the cerebral hemispheres largely composed of gray matter. Any structure that is not cortical is generally referred to as subcortical. h. Gray matter: composed of cell bodies, dendrites, and short unmyelinated axons i. White matter: composed of large myelinated axons that connect various areas of the cerebral cortex with other parts of the brain. 3. Brainstem: the central neural stem on which the two cerebral hemispheres sit; many brain stem structures play key roles in the regulation of the body’s inner environment. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4. Cranial Nerves: nerves that extend directly from the brain and can innervate the face. Some are purely sensory and motor fibers. There are 12 cranial nerves numbered anterior to posterior from 1 to 12. a. Olfactory nerves: 1 st pair of cranial nerves which carry sensory signals from the olfactory receptors of the nose to the brain. b. Optic nerves: the 2 nd pair of cranial nerves; they carry sensory signals from the visual receptors of the eyes to the brain. c. Vestibulocochlear nerves: the 8 th pair of cranial nerves, which carry sensory signals from the inner ear to the brain.
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