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Unformatted text preview: BEYOND MENDELIAN GENETICS (10 Q; 3 Q (blood type, incomplete dominance, sex-linked trait)) Polygenic: more than one gene can affect a trait (i.e. eye color, human height) Epitropic: ???I cant find a definition??? Pleiotropic: an allele that has more than one effect on a trait/phenotype Incomplete Dominance: intermediate/mixed expression of a trait (has 1:2:1 phenotype ratio) Codominance: no recessive trait, both alleles are completely expressed, that is both alleles are dominant Multiple Allele Series: more than two alleles from a population are responsible for a trait Sex-linkage: a trait determined by the gene on an X-Chromosome Explain the relationship between antigens and antibodies in the blood Blood has ANTIGENS (receptors on the blood cells to identify them) and it produces ANTIBODIES (define foreigners, so if the body doesnt have an antigen for something, it has an antibody) Define agglutination When an ANTIGEN enters the body it combines with an ANTIBODY and AGGULATES (the clumping of blood) Explain why type O blood is the universal donor and type AB blood is the universal recipient O is the Universal Donor because it has NO ANTIGENS, so when it enters the body, ANTIBODIES have nothing to attack. AB is the Universal RECIPIENT because it has BOTH ANTIGENS (so no ANITBODIES) Be able to recognize and interpret human pedigrees for autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and sex- linked disorders and to use genetics to predict whether the disorders will occur in subsequent generations. A family pedigree shows the history of a trait in a family & allows researchers to analyze a human trait Normal Male Carrier Male Infected Male Infected Female Carrier Female Normal Female ****MALES CAN ONLY BE CARRIERS FOR AUTOSOMAL (NON-SEX LINKED) TRAITS**** Autosomal Dominant: most disorders arent, but the ones that are affect the person later in life (Huntingtons), one parent must be infected (Hh, HH, so NO carriers, either have it or you dont, since normal = hh) Autosomal Recessive: recessive allele causes the problem, parents can be both carriers or have it (i.e. Cystic Fibrosis, k-sachs, hemophilia, albinism) Sex-Linked Pedigree: all females get one of babas Xs & one of mamas; boys only get mamas X! so non- colorblind baba cannot have colorblind daughters, but colorblind mom will have all colorblind sons no male carriers! DNA, REPLICATION, & PROTEIN SYNTHESIS (17 Q, 1Q (translate mRNA to Amino Acid/Protein w/a Twist) A GENE is a particular sequence of DNA (genetic material of all organisms) located at a specific site on a CHROMOSOME (which is an organized strand of DNA) Describe a section of DNA (with phosphate, sugars, and bases, as well as the antiparallel configuration) DNA is made of 5C SUGAR, PHOSPHATE, & NITROGENOUS BASE (or nucleotide) DNA has a phosphate sugar backbone (which join via PHOSPHODIESTER bonds) The nucleotides join by hydrogen bonds between complimentary bases (A = T have 2 h-bonds, C G have 3 h-...
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