BIO1510 - Exam 3 Study Guide

BIO1510 - Exam 3 Study Guide - Things Discussed in Class...

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Things Discussed in Class that are not in the study guide: Chromosomes store genetic information Chromosomes are made of Chromatin which is a complex of DNA and histone protein DNA exists as long, double-stranded fiber extending chromosome’s entire length Nuclosome is 200 nucleotides of DNA coiled around histone protein called a Solenoid Replication before cell division: When replicated Sister Chromatids (2 copies of chromosome) are connected to each other at their Centromere Region by Cohesion (a protein complex that holds them together) – on Centromeres are Kinetochores which attach the centromeres to mitotic spindle; CANCER/TUMOR red terms on slide Anaplastic: rate and extent of maturity is abnormal Angiogenesis: tumors produce their own blood vessels for nutrition in continued growth CHROMOSOMES, MITOSIS, CELL CYCLE, & MEIOSIS Define karyotype: all chromosomes in a cell of an individual State how many chromosome pairs humans have: 23 pairs, 46 chromosomes Somatic Cells: these are body cells that have 23 pairs of chromosomes (because mitosis) Sex Cells (gametes): sex cells for reproduction have 23 chromosomes (because meiosis) – sperm/egg Explain what the cell cycle is… the cell cycle is a series of phases that involve the growth and division of a cell. Describe interphase events. Specifically, state what occurs during the G 1 , G 2 , and S phases Interphase is portion of cell cycle between cell division… G 1 (Gap/Growth 1): the majority of cell growth occurs S (synthesis): the replication of genome (DNA) occurs here G 2 Know each of the phases of mitosis, meiosis I and meiosis II. Specifically, make sure you understand all of the terminology (“sister chromatid”, “centrosomes”, etc.) and what occurs during each phase – Be able to recognize a phase description as being either mitotic or meiotic. After Interphase – when the chromosomes have replicated MITOSIS – result: two daughter cells of mitosis, both diploid, identical to each other and parent cell Prophase: the nuclear envelope breaks apart, the nucleolus disappears, the chromatids condense to distinct chromosomes, the centrioles migrate to ends and form mitotic spindle which attach to kinetochores on centriole region of sister chromosomes (which are held by cohesion proteins) Metaphase: mitotic spindle is fully formed, chromosomes line up at “cell quarter” = metaphase plate ; spindle fibers begin to pull them to opposite poles Anaphase: sister chormatids separate (now are called daughter chromatids) to opposite poles; and the poles move apart lengthening the cell; microtubules shorten as they pull the chromatids Telophase: daughter chromosomes reach opposite poles & spindle/kinetochores vanish; nuclear envelope forms; and nucleolus reappear; chromosomes decondense Cytokinesis: cell pinches in half two new cells – different for animal/plant cells discussed later
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This note was uploaded on 04/23/2008 for the course BIO 1510 taught by Professor Rodriguez during the Winter '08 term at Wayne State University.

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BIO1510 - Exam 3 Study Guide - Things Discussed in Class...

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