bio1510examII - ENZYMES EXPERIMENTS Making & Breaking...

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ENZYMES EXPERIMENTS Making & Breaking Bonds HYDROLYSIS: (water-breaking) breaks complex molecules to simpler ones by addition of water DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS : builds simple molecules to complex ones by removal of water Example: Sucrose gains water to become Glucose + Fructose (process sped by enzyme Sucrase) The Nature of Enzymes ENZYMES: are biochemicals that speed up processes; these organic catalysts are usually made of PROTEINS or RNA NUCLEIC ACIDS (they increase reaction rate more product over time) Reaction rate is affected by PHYSICAL means as well… If you ↑ temperature (to a point) ↑ chance of molecule collision ↑ reaction If you ↑ pressure (putting molecules in smaller space) ↑ chance of molecule collision ↑ reaction Unlike Enzymes, these reactions would disrupt cells ENZYME SPECIFICTY: result from each enzymes unique structure at its ACTIVE SITE That is each enzyme has a shape at its active site that allows it to attach to only specific cells to speed up specific reactions Slight changes in temperature, hydrogen ion concentration (pH) or [salts/ions] can alter the structure of the active site on the enzyme, and so the enzyme doesn’t work anymore, but it’s reversible The amount of substrate to be catalyzed affects the reaction, if you ↑[substrate] ↑reaction rate (because more substrate to be reacted on), but there is a limit, when all the enzymes are filled with substrates, it will be SATURATED (so reaction rate will not increase anymore, it will plateau on a graph) Generally enzymes are named for what they react with – so you add “ASE” to the substrate (sucrose’s enzyme is Sucrase, or protein is degraded by Protase, or Carbohydrate by Carbohydrase, Lipids by lipase, Alcohol by alcohol dehydrogenase… There’s always exceptions… Rennin (in cow’s stomach to curdle milk), Invertase (another name for sucrase, made by yeast) & Ptylin (old name for salivary amylase) Experimental Design Test Hypothesis: assume what would happen with reactivity of Sucrase when pH, temp, extreme heat, or [substrate] is altered… Independent Variable: Dependent Variable: the measure of intensity of enzymatic reaction, checked by BENEDICT bioassay test Benedict test for Reducing sugars (which are mono/di-sacchardies i.e. fructose/glucose, except sucrose)… (slowest rate) A little bit = green yellow orange red = most reducing sugar (fastest rate) No reaction (means all sucrose) and that stays Blue! *the barfoed’s test is not used because it only provides + or – results, no intermediates*
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bio1510examII - ENZYMES EXPERIMENTS Making & Breaking...

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