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Chapter 5 Notes - Monosaccharides Simple sugar...

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Macromolecules Macromolecules The 4 major macromolecules are proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acid Carbon is the key atom in all macromolecules Dehydration synthesis is a process that removes water from two subunits to join them together to form a polymer Macromolecule Subunit (monomer)+subunit (monomer)+subunit (monomer) + … =polymer subunits can be identical can be different carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids Proteins Amino acids Protein=AA+AA+AA+AA+… 20 different amino acids components carbon atom carboxyl group amino group R group (varies) Polypeptide Protein denaturation Extreme heat Strong acids Strong bases Ionizing radiation Extreme cold Harsh chemicals Denaturation of Protein Carbohydrates Carbohydrate structure
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1C:2H:1O subunit=monosaccharide(sugar) carbohydrate=mono+mono+mono+… disaccharide=mono+mono polysaccharide= more than two monos.
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Unformatted text preview: Monosaccharides Simple sugar Disaccharides Simple sugar or carbohydrate Polysaccharides Complex carbohydrates DNA vs. RNA • Subunit=nucleotide • nucleotide – base – phosphate group – deoxyribose • Subunit=nucleotide • nucleotide – base – phosphate group – ribose DNA and RNA • DNA-without oxygen • RNA-has oxygen Lipids Types of lipids • Phospholipid-Cell membrane • steroids-cholesterol • fat-butter, margarine – oil-animal, plant Lipid structure • C,H,O • fat=fatty acids + glycerol – monoglyceride=1FA + glycerol – diglyceride=2FA + glycerol – triglyceride=3FA + glycerol • fatty acid – saturated-no double bonds – unsaturated-double bonds Saturated vs. Unsaturated Steroids • Lipids with carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings – Cholesterol – hormones...
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