Chapter 6 Notes

Chapter 6 Notes - Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell Overview:...

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Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell Overview: The Importance of Cells All organisms are made of cells The cell is the simplest collection of matter that can live Cell structure is correlated to cellular function Concept 6.1: To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry Microscopy Scientists use microscopes to visualize cells too small to see with the naked eye Light microscopes (LMs) Pass visible light through a specimen Magnify cellular structures with lenses Different types of microscopes Can be used to visualize different sized cellular structures Use different methods for enhancing visualization of cellular structures Electron microscopes (EMs) Focus a beam of electrons through a specimen (TEM) or onto its surface (SEM) The scanning electron microscope (SEM) Provides for detailed study of the surface of a specimen The transmission electron microscope (TEM) Provides for detailed study of the internal ultrastructure of cells Isolating Organelles by Cell Fractionation Cell fractionation Takes cells apart and separates the major organelles from one another The centrifuge Is used to fractionate cells into their component parts
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The process of cell fractionation Concept 6.2: Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions Two types of cells make up every organism Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Comparing Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells All cells have several basic features in common They are bounded by a plasma membrane They contain a semifluid substance called the cytosol They contain chromosomes They all have ribosomes Prokaryotic cells Do not contain a nucleus Have their DNA located in a region called the nucleoid Eukaryotic cells Contain a true nucleus, bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope Are generally quite a bit bigger than prokaryotic cells The logistics of carrying out cellular metabolism sets limits on the size of cells A smaller cell Has a higher surface to volume ratio, which facilitates the exchange of materials into and out of the cell The plasma membrane
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This note was uploaded on 04/23/2008 for the course SCI 1406 taught by Professor Sheffield during the Spring '08 term at Tarrant County.

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Chapter 6 Notes - Chapter 6 A Tour of the Cell Overview:...

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