1406 Chapter 1 Notes

1406 Chapter 1 Notes - Chapter 1 Exploring Life Overview:...

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Chapter 1 Exploring Life Overview: Biology’s Most Exciting Era Biology Is the scientific study of life The phenomenon we call life Defies a simple, one-sentence definition We recognize life By what living things do Some properties of life Concept 1.1: Biologists explore life from the microscopic to the global scale The study of life Extends from the microscope scale of molecules and cells to the global scale of the entire living planet A Hierarchy of Biological Organization The hierarchy of life Extends through many levels of biological organization From the biosphere to organisms From cells to molecules A Closer Look at Ecosystems Each organism Interacts with its environment (living/nonliving) Eg. Tree absorb water and minerals from soil Tree eaten by microorganisms/Tree provides home to some organisms Both organism and environment Are affected by the interactions between them Ecosystem Dynamics The dynamics of any ecosystem include two major processes Cycling of nutrients, in which materials acquired by plants eventually return to the soil The flow of energy from sunlight to producers to consumers
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Energy Conversion Activities of life Require organisms to perform work And work requires energy The exchange of energy between an organism and its surroundings Involves transforming one form of energy to another Energy flows through an ecosystem Usually entering as sunlight and exiting as heat A Closer Look at Cells The cell Is the lowest level of organization that can perform all activities required for life The Cell’s Heritable Information Cells contain chromosomes made partly of DNA, the substance of genes Which program the cells’ production of proteins and transmit information from parents to offspring The molecular structure of DNA Accounts for it information-rich nature Two Main Forms of Cells All cells share certain characteristics They are all enclosed by a plasma membrane They all use DNA as genetic information There are two main forms of cells Eukaryotic Prokaryotic Eukaryotic cells Are subdivided by internal membranes into various membrane-enclosed organelles Eukaryotic Cell Prokaryotic cells Lack the kinds of membrane-enclosed organelles found in eukaryotic cells
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Prokaryotic Cell Concept 1.2: Biological systems are much more than the sum of their parts A system Is a combination of components that form a more complex organization The Emergent Properties of Systems Due to increasing complexity New properties emerge with each step upward in the hierarchy of biological order Molecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ system
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This note was uploaded on 04/23/2008 for the course SCI 1406 taught by Professor Sheffield during the Spring '08 term at Tarrant County.

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1406 Chapter 1 Notes - Chapter 1 Exploring Life Overview:...

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