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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life • Overview: Chemical Foundations of Biology • Concept 2.1: Matter • Matter –Chemical elements •Pure form •Combination Elements and Compounds Matter-anything that takes up space Solid Liquid Gas • Matter is made up of elements • Element-substances that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions –92 Natural elements • A compound –> 2 elements combined in a ratio –Has characteristics different from those of its elements Essential Elements of Life • Essential elements (25) –A few include carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen –Make up 96% of living matter • A few other elements –Make up the remaining 4% of living matter • The effects of essential element deficiencies • Trace elements –Are required by an organism in only minute quantities •Iron (Fe) •Iodine (I) • Concept 2.2: An element’s properties depend on the structure of its atoms • Element –Made a special atom •different from atom of other elements • Atom –Is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element Subatomic Particles • Atom –Made of subatomic particles • Subatomic particles: –Neutrons=neutral –Protons=positive charge –Electrons=negative charge • Protons and neutrons –Are found in the atomic nucleus • Electrons...
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