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Unformatted text preview: process. 11. Explain why a concentration gradient of a substance across a membrane represents potential energy. 12. Distinguish among hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic solutions. 13. Define osmosis and predict the direction of water movement based on differences in solute concentrations. 14. Describe how living cells with and without cell walls regulate water balance. 15. Explain how transport proteins facilitate diffusion. 16. Distinguish among osmosis, facilitated diffusion, and active transport. 17. Describe the two forces that combine to produce an electrochemical gradient. 18. Explain how an electrogenic pump creates voltage across a membrane. 19. Describe the process of cotransport. 20. Explain how large molecules are transported across a cell membrane. 21. Distinguish between pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis....
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