Chapter 17 Notes - CHAPTER 17 FROM GENE TO PROTEIN Topics...

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CHAPTER 17 FROM GENE TO PROTEIN Topics Nucleic acids DNA replication Gene expression Eukaryotic vs Prokaryotic gene expression Genomics Regulating gene expression Sensing and responding to environmental changes Gene Expression Synthesizing proteins from the genetic code: Transcription (DNA->mRNA) RNA processing (pre-mRNA->finished mRNA) Translation (RNA-> protein) Codon Definition-triplet of bases coding for AA A,T,C,G (DNA) A,U,C,G (RNA) 4 3 possible triplets 64 20 Amino Acids =>More than one codon for each Amino acid Stop codons-UAA,UGA,UAG Start codon or Met-AUG Transcription Initiation of RNA synthesis Elongation Termination Transcription Synthesis of an RNA Transcript The stages of transcription are Initiation Elongation Termination
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RNA Polymerase Binding and Initiation of Transcription Promoters signal the initiation of RNA synthesis Include a “TATA” box Transcription factors Help eukaryotic RNA polymerase recognize “TATA” box and binds to it. Then RNA polymerase II can bind forming transcription initiation complex mRNA Processing Alteration of mRNA ends Capping Polyadenylation Splicing Capping
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