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anthro1-midterm study guide

anthro1-midterm study guide - Midterm Study Guide 1 How do...

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Midterm Study Guide 1. How do anthropologists define the term adaptation? (A FEATURE OF AN ORGANISM CREATED BY THE PROCESS OF NATURAL SELECTION) 2. What are Darwin’s three postulates? What did Darwin call his idea? (1. THE ABILIITY OF POPULATIONS TO EXPAND IS INFINITE, BUT THE ABILITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT TO SUPPORT POPULATIONS IS ALWAYS FINITE. 2. ORGANISMS WITHIN POPULAITONS VARY, AND THIS VARIATION AFFECTS THE ABILITY OF ORGANISMS TO SURVIVE AND REPRODUCE. 3. THESE VARIATIONS ARE TRANSMITTED FROM PARENT TO OFFSPRING.; THEORY OF NATURAL SELECTION) 3. Explain the process of natural selection and the evolutionary results of selective episodes. (ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECT POPULATIONS; DROUGHT FROM 1976-1978, SEED SIZE & HARDNESS AFFECTED, MANY BIRDS DIE FROM STARVATION, LARGER BEAKED BIRDS WERE BETTER AT CRACKING AND EATING HARDER SEEDS, LARGE BEAKED BIRDS SURVIVED THE DROUGHT BETTER) 4. How can incredibly complex adaptations evolve over time? What are the two key factors in this process? (TRAITS THAT ARE MORE ADAPTIVE OCCUR AT RANDOM, NATURAL SELECTION RETAINS THESE ADAPTIVE TRAITS, OVER A GREAT AMOUNT OF TIME, COMPLEXITY MAY EMERGE OR DISAPPEAR; VARIATION AND SELECTIVE RENTENTION) 5. Who was Gregor Mendel, and what was his primary contribution to the study of evolution? (MENDEL – MONK IN E. EUROPE, STUDIED PEA PLANTS BY BREEDING THEM TOGETHER; OBSERVED CHARACTERISTICS ARE INHERITED THROUGH GENES, ONE FROM THE MOTHER AND ONE FROM THE FATHER, EACH OF THESE GENES ARE EQUALLY LIKELY TO BE TRANSMITTED WHEN GAMETES ARE FORMED) 7. What is the difference between genotype and phenotype? On which of these does natural selection act? (GENOTYPE IS THE GENETIC MAKEUP, PHENOTYPE OS THE PHYSICAL APPEARANCE; PHENOTYPE) 8. What are alleles? What is the difference between being homozygous and being heterozygous for a specific trait?
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