Midterm1_notes - LECTURE 1 Eukaryotes - Have a membrane...

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LECTURE 1 Eukaryotes -- Have a membrane bound nucleus Prokaryotes -- Do not have a membrane bound nucleus DNA -- Deoxyribonucleic acid RNA -- Ribonucleic acid tRNA “transfer RNA” rRNA “Ribosomal RNA” mRNA “Messanger RNA” Exon -- DNA that codes for a gene Intron -- DNA that does not code for a gene Allele -- Alternative form of a gene DNA polymerase -- Enzyme that creates a complimentary strand of DNA from a DNA Template RNA polymerase -- Enzyme that creates a complimentary strand of RNA from a DNA Template Nucleus -- contains the chromosomes Nuclear pore -- nano-scale pore that allows mRNA to leave the nucleus after transcription Ribosome -- Cell Organelle (collection of proteins and RNA) that translates mRNA to Amino-acids to synthesize proteins Organelle -- structure with a specialized function within the cell “like a cellular organ” Plasmid -- extra chromosomal DNA found in prokaryotes (a circular piece of DNA) Restriction Enzymes -- prokaryote enzyme that stops viral reproduction by cleaving viral DNA DNA Ligase -- Enzyme that repairs, seals gaps created by, say, Restriction Enzymes PCR -- Polymerase Chain Reaction, creates millions of copies of particular segment of DNA Receptor Proteins -- proteins that decorate cells to enable signaling Antibodies -- produced in response to and bind foreign bodies to enable targeted immune response Aptamers -- Artificial antibodies constructed out of DNA or RNA LECTURE 2 Central Dogma of Molecular Biology --- Transfer of information from Genetic Code to Proteins The flow of information: Genetic Code (Exons) DNA-- Transcription into mRNA (messenger RNA)-- Translation of mRNA into Protein and Molecular machines Gene is a sequence of DNA bases that codes for a specific product, usually a structural or functional protein; found on chromosome in DNA The Nucleus: radius ~ 3microns; Enveloped DNA: Length: 2 meters; 23 sets chromosomes; end to end of base pair 1.1nm (across ssDNA); dsDNA 2nm diameter; Comp DNA (ATGC); comp RNA (AUGC); in dsDNA, single chromatin loop wound on disc-like nucleosome Transcription: in nucleus; A molecular machine Powered by ATP ; Pulls in Ribonucleic acid bases from cytoplasm and transcribes the DNA sequence into RNA Eukaryote -- ~ 1-5 kb/min; Prokaryote -- ~ 30-85 b/sec Transcription is the most important level of control in gene regulation. In eukaryotes, many more regulatory proteins are involved in transcription, which allows for greater control but also provides for a greater chance of malfunction. Translation: Occurs in the Cytosol; mRNA is “translated” into a string of amino acids to make protein; Organelle, known as a Ribosome accomplishes the Translation; The string of amino-acids folds and takes form based on fundamental forces and accessory proteins into functional Proteins; • if not folded properly, prions are created that can cause genetic mutation (damaging or killing host);
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2008 for the course ENGR 213 taught by Professor Clague during the Winter '08 term at Cal Poly.

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Midterm1_notes - LECTURE 1 Eukaryotes - Have a membrane...

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