Geology 1003 Notes

Geology 1003 Notes - Geology 1003 Notes I. Early History of...

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Geology 1003 Notes I. Early History of Historical Geology: A. 3 basic rock types: 1. Igneous 2. Metamorphic 3. Sedimentary B. Sedimentary Rocks 1. are typically deposited in layers; the first layer is called a Stratum 2. sedimentary rocks are made of many layers or strata 3. Stratiography is the study of strata 4. Stratigraphic correlation is how strata correlates with each other 5. fossil is anything that can be obtained by digging or anything with an indication of past life such as shells or footprints a. minerals b. organic remains c. anything natural or supernatural C. People who influenced Geology 1. Leonardo Da Vinci (1451-1519): first correctly identified fossils for what they are which is the remains of organisms a. he found ancient clams and oyster shells up in the mountains of Florence b. idea of Stratigraphic succession c. recognized the sediments to be marine strata that got their by tectonic uplift d. incorporated Geology into his art 2. Niels Stenson (1638-1688): worked for the Duke of Tuscany in Italy and became Nicolaus Steno a. Steno’s Principles: i. Principle of Superposition : younger stratum on top ii. Principle of Horizontality : strata are deposited in a more horizontal position than vertical iii. Principle of Original Lateral Continuity : explains the occurrence on opposite sides of a valley of similar rocks that seem once to have been connected 3. James Hutton ( 1726-1797): was the first to recognized unconformities in strata (time breaks) a. Angular Unconformities : when a group of rocks has been tilted and eroded and younger rocks have been deposited on top of them i. represents a break in time b. Disconformities : unconformity above rocks that underwent erosion before the beds above the unconformity were deposited.
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c. Nonconformities : an unconformity separating bedded sedimentary rocks above from crystalline rocks below. 4. Charles Lyell (1797-18795): Principles of Cross-cutting Relationships a. Principle of Inclusions : intrusive igneous rock is always younger than the rock that it invades i. igneous rocks are younger ii. faults are younger b. Principle of Components : when fragments of one body of rock are found within a second body of rock, the second body is always younger than the first. D. Early Geological “isms” 1. Neptunism vs. Volcanism (late 1700’s – early 1800’s) a. neptunism: all rocks precipitate from sea water including igneous and metamorphic rocks b. people who studied volcanoes showed Basalt to be of igneous origin i. Werner in Germany 2. Catastrophism vs. Volcanoes
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2008 for the course GEOL 1003 taught by Professor Hanor during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Geology 1003 Notes - Geology 1003 Notes I. Early History of...

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