Geology 1003 Note (2)

Geology 1003 Note (2) - Geology 1003 Notes(2 I Climate A...

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Geology 1003 Notes (2) I. Climate A. Climate: weather over long periods of time 1. Climate has continuously changed over time 2. Climate change: responsible for mass extinctions 3. Climate Matrix: a. warm cool Wet Dry 4. What controls the climate? a. heat budget 5. What’s the most important source of heat on Earth’s surface? a. the sun 6. Green house: a. The sun sends light into the greenhouse. Some of the light gets reflected off of the glass walls and says in the green house, some gets reflected out of the green house, and the rest turns into heat. Some of that heat gets absorbed by the plants, some gets reflected inside of the green house, and the rest escapes the green house into the atmosphere. 7. Nature: a. Light from the sun enters the atmosphere. Some of that light bounces off of the clouds in the atmosphere and gets reflected into space while the rest bounces off of the earth’s surface into the atmosphere or turns into heat. b. Reflection of light back into space depends on Albedo i. high albedo: clouds, ice ii. low albedo: oceans, forests 8. Green house gases: a. gas molecules trap heat and prevent it from going into space (like glass) b. nitrogen, oxygen, argon: make up the atmosphere and are not green house gases c. water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane are d. get carbon dioxide by burning fossil fuels e. without green house gases, the earth would be 31º C cooler i. the average temperature today is 25 ºC (75 ºF) and water freezes at 0 ºC ii. If water is frozen, there can be no life
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9. Variations in the heat budget: a. changes in albedo b. change in green house effect c. changes in solar intensity d. changes in volcanic activity 10. Catastrophic volcanic eruptions: a. ash clouds reflect sunlight b. volatiles from the volcano create acidic droplets that reflect sunlight 11. Earth’s Climate Today: a. Circulation of atmosphere b. Circulation of oceans c. the equator is the hottest spot on Earth’s surface d. Equator (0ºN): air is hot and wet; water vapor precipitates our as rain (warm, wet climate) e. 30ºN: air converges on Earth’s surface; dry warm weather (desserts) f. 60ºN: air rises; cool, wet weather g. 90ºN: air converges on the Earth’s surface; dry cool weather (ice caps) B. Heat Budget 1. most important source of heat is the sun C. Variations in the heat budget 1. changes in solar energy a. luminosity of the sun: in Precambrian, the sun was 15% lower b. orbital elements i. earth’s orbit: earth spins like a top ii. precession:
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iii. changes in tilt of poles iv. circular orbit vs. elliptical eccentricity: 2. Green house gases: absorb heat 3. albedo: reflection of light a. materials have different albedos (ice, water, forests) b. volcanic ash and aerosols (liquid droplets) 4. Professor Chris Scotese: a. His climate matrix: Warm cool Wet Dry 5. Climate Gradient 6. Climate has changed continuously over Earth’s history D. Climate proxies: 1. Coal, Bauxite, and Laterite are found in wet, warm climates i. Coal: remains of plants that lived in wet climates
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2008 for the course GEOL 1003 taught by Professor Hanor during the Spring '08 term at LSU.

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Geology 1003 Note (2) - Geology 1003 Notes(2 I Climate A...

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