Anthropology 1001 notes

Anthropology 1001 notes - Anthropology 1001 I Scientific...

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Anthropology 1001 1-18-08 I. Scientific Perspective A. Science is a process of understanding the world around us. 1. It is based on observations and deductions. B. Scientific Method 1. Problem Identified 2. Hypotheses established 3. Data collections – testing a. repeated testing b. rework hypotheses 4. Theory II. Biases? A. biases do creep in, so it’s difficult to be non-bias III. Studies of American Physical Anthropology A. Samuel Morton (1799-1851) – recognized for his studies of human variation. 1. Studied Native American skulls and in 1839, he published Crania Americana and came up with different ways for measuring the skull. B. Ales Hrdlicka (1869-1943) 1. started the American Journal of Physical Anthropology in 1918 2. started the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in 1929 IV. History of Evolutionary Thought A. Charles Darwin – came up with the idea of natural selection and the theory of evolution 1. a species can change (evolution) 2. branching – all living things descend from a common ancestor 3. gradual – it takes a long time for change to happen 4. Natural selection – idea that environment can influence change and determine who is fit for it. B. Middle Ages – heavily influenced by religious beliefs 1. All of life is ordered 2. great chain of being: organized the world into a higher article structure a. God, Angels, Heaven, Human, Beast, Plant, Flame, Stone 3. fixity of species: once a species was created by God, it did not change 4. Natural World – religious beliefs implied into the natural world 5. Political System – feudal C. Mid 15 th – 18 th centuries – change in how people viewed the world. 1. Mainly because of technological and scientific advances a. laws of physics (gravity and motion) b. invention of the telescope c. invention of the microscope d. invention of the printing press e. Renaissance and Enlightenment f. Exploration – diversity D. Darwin’s Influences:
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1. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) – credited with coming up with a way to classify new organisms (Binomial nomenclature) 2. Buffon (1787-18 ) – French naturalist who worked for the king a. recognized that species do change and the environment can have an effect on them 3. Lamarck (1744-1829) – French Scholar a. first to try to explain how change happened b. inheritance of Acquired Characteristics (“Lamarchianism”) – a characteristic acquired in an individuals lifetime could be inherited by that individual’s offspring i. ex. Giraffe’s necks got longer 4. Cuvier (1769-1832) – well respected a. Carastrophism: evidence of life forms that no longer exist and fossils that resemble modern-day species. Periodic revolutions impacted Earth and life forms in those areas would die and become extinct. Anthropology 1001
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Anthropology 1001 notes - Anthropology 1001 I Scientific...

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