Anthropology 1001 notes (2)

Anthropology 1001 notes (2) - Anthropology 1001 notes (2)...

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Anthropology 1001 notes (2) I. Taxonomy A. Primates 1. prosimians 2. New world monkeys (platyrime) 3. Old world monkeys (circapythicoid) 4. apes (most specialized) B. Taxonomy: Proposed changes 1. Taxonomy is based on how you’re going to classify a species a. because of new discoveries in DNA evidence, it didn’t hold 2. In the new chart, move tarsiers a. there’s a strepsirhini suborder: lemurs and lorises b. haplorhini suborder: tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans i. tarsiers are anthropoids at the molecular level 3. the new chart has not been formally adopted 4. the second proposed change would reclassify apes a. superfamily of hominoids b. family under that of hominids, hylobatids, and pongids i. the orangutans don’t belong c. same superfamily of hominoids d. family of hylobatids and hominids i. subfamily of pongines, gorillas, and hominines 5. the new changes group apes, gorillas, orangutans, chimps, and humans together into the same family a. they don’t get separated until “tribes”: panins and hominines (humans) C. Primate Characteristics Relative to Other Mammals 1. Limbs and locomotion a. primates have an erect posture (sitting and standing) 2. hands and feet a. 5 digits ( fingers and toes) on each limb b. Opposable thumbs (can also be on the feet) i. prehensile: “grasping” hands and feet c. have nails instead of claws d. have sensory nerves that are more developed on the fingers and toes 3. flexible limb structure: anatomy of our limbs allows us to move in many ways 4. quadrupedal: movement on 4 limbs a. knucklewalkers: walking on knuckles rather than flathanded b. limb length ratio: compares length of forearms to length of hind limb
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i. in modern primates, forelimbs are shorter in species who spend a lot of time in trees and climbing (ration is less than one) ii. primates who are more terrestrial have longer forearms (ratio is more than one) 5. vertical clinging and leaping a. powerful hind legs b. push off of tree limbs, twist in the air, and grab on to other tree limbs 6. brachiation: arm swinging a. body is away from forelimbs b. as they swing, the weight of the body is alternates from limb to limb c. semi-brachiation: using tails as well as arms i. the tail becomes like a fifth limb ii. only some new world monkeys can do this 7. bipedal: walking on 2 limbs a. not very common out of all the locomotions b. some primates us multiple means of locomotions i. can do this because of limb flexibility 8. senses and brain: we have an increased reliance on vision a. most primates have color vision and depth perception i. skeletally, our eyes face forward (anteriorly) b. decreased reliance on smell; decreased snout c. complex brain; encephalized: size of the brain compared to the size of the beings i. humans are the most encephalized 9. maturation, learning, and behavior a. k-selected vs. r-selected: i. k-selected: have few offspring, are born immature and need a lot of parental care and protection. Long maturation periods and longer
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2008 for the course ANTH 1001 taught by Professor Tague during the Spring '07 term at LSU.

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Anthropology 1001 notes (2) - Anthropology 1001 notes (2)...

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