Midterm Review - LING 1000 Midterm Review C Sub Aux VP...

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LING 1000 Midterm Review C Sub Aux VP Prescriptive Grammar - The socially embedded notion of the ‘correct’ or ‘proper’ way to use a language - Ex. Never end a sentence with a preposition o No: Where do you come from? Yes: From where to do you come? Descriptive Grammar - Describe what happens in spoken language and accept the patterns a speaker uses, without judgment. - Ex. Some English speakers end a sentence with a preposition. Simple Word - Includes single morpheme (meaning) Complex Word - Includes 2 or more morphemes (meanings) Morpheme - Unit of meaning Allomorph - Different phonetic forms of a morpheme ( pronounced differently) - Ex. Electri c Electri c ity Free (morpheme) - Can occur isolated Bound (morpheme) - Can only occur attached to another morpheme Root - Lexical morpheme that constitutes principle meaning of word Affix - A bound morpheme that attaches to another morpheme (combination of morphemes) o Prefix- Attaches before another morpheme o Suffix- Attaches after another morpheme o Infix- Attaches inside of another morpheme o Circumfix- Discontinuous morpheme that attaches on either side of stem Word formation Processes - Affixation o Forms complex word by attaching affix to stem to form larger word form o Defined mostly by distribution ex. Re -do, appear ance - Compounding o Formed by combined 2 or more words o Ex. Girlfriend, homework, blackboard - Reduplication 1
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o Process of copying all of part of a stem o Ex, Indonesian ibu (s) ibuibu (pl) - Morpheme Internal Change o Formed by substituting on segment for another to express a morphological contrast o Ex. Sing/sang mouse/mice - Suppletion o Formed by replacing one form of a morpheme with another that has no systemic phonetic similarity in order to express grammatical contrast o Ex. Go/went, good/best/better - Acronymy o Formed by combining initial part of all or most words in a phrase o Ex. Scuba Self contained underwater breathing apparatus - Blending o Formed by combining parts of different words o Ex. Smoke+fog =smog, Lunch+Breakfast= brunch - Clipping o Formed by deleting 1 or more parts of an existing word o Ex. Gym = Gymnasium - Conversion/ Zero Derivation o Process whereby an existing word is assigned to another lexical category without changing word form o Ex. Permit (n) Permit (v) - Coinage o Process whereby words are created with no obvious source o Ex. Quiz, nylon, jazz Derivation - The process of creating new words out of other words (new meanings) - The phonological form of the root us used ‘as-is’, and one more pieces of additional form are attached to it. -
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2008 for the course LING 1000 taught by Professor Tom during the Spring '08 term at York University.

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Midterm Review - LING 1000 Midterm Review C Sub Aux VP...

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