Final Exam Review

Final Exam Review - LING 1000 FINAL EXAM D Structure formed...

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LING 1000 FINAL EXAM D- Structure : formed by merging constituents in accordance with the subcategorization requirements of syntactic heads. Basic meaning constituents are encoded at this level of representation. (Logical form) → 3 movement options S-Structure : representations are formed from a corresponding d-structure representation by means of movement rules (in the event that movement is not involved in the formation of a given sentence, its d-structure and s-structure will be the same (D.S=S.S) 1. Inversion structures and Subject-Auxiliary Inversion - An inversion structure is characterized by a tensed verb (auxiliary or lexical be ) occurring before instead of after a subject Ex. D.S = Claire has told Wally S.S = Has Claire told Wally D.S = I should tell Felicia S.S= Should I tell Felicia D.S = Maya has seen that film S.S= Has Maya seen that film 2. Wh- Structures and Wh- Movement - An English Wh-structure is characterized by the presence of a Wh-constituent in clause initial position (ex. who, whom, what, when, where, why, which, whose and how) Ex. D.S= I should say what to Marvin S.S= What should I say to Marvin The underlying position from which a wh-constitutent is moved corrpesponds to the semantic function that it expresses. Possible functions associated with wh- constituents include are: Verb Dependent D.S= Bill will see John S.S = Who(m) will John see t D.S= Bill is leaving because he is needed at home S.S= Why is Bill leaving t Preposition Complement D.S= Frank has come from the doctor’s S.S= Where has Frank come from t Subject D.S= The book fell S.S= What fell t Determine/Degree (entire phrase with wh-word is moved into initial position) D.S= Wendy has seen rent and hairspray S.S= Which films has Wendy seen t D.S= Steve can run very fast S.S= How quickly can Steve run t
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3. Passive Structures and NP-movement - An English passive one in which the main verb is in its past participle form and is preceded in the same clause by some form of auxiliary be . An additional, cross linguistic, feature of a passive clause is that the syntactic subject corresponds to a subcategorized verb object Ex. Jane put the car in the garage active The car was put in the garage (by jane) PASSIVE * Syntactic subject of a passive is said to occur object-position in the d-structure and to be moved to a subject position (S.S) by means of a ‘rule of NP movement’ Ex. D.S= X was sold the car by Sherman S.S = The car was sold by Sherman NP movement: move an object NP into an empty subject position Phonetics Speech vs. Writing (Linguistic utterances can be analyzed as a sequence of speech sounds) o ‘Logographic’ writing systems (Chinese) Symbols represent words or concepts rather than speech sounds % =percent, T = person (Chinese) o ‘Syllabic’ writing systems (Japanese, cree) Symbols represent words or concepts rather than speech sounds o ‘Alphabetic’ Writing System (English) symbols represent speech sounds but not
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Final Exam Review - LING 1000 FINAL EXAM D Structure formed...

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