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astro hw 6 - 1 Heavier elements were pulled toward the...

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1. Heavier elements were pulled toward the center of the universe due to gravity. This, in turn, caused planetary nebulae to form protosuns on the Hydrogen and Helium rich core. 2. a) The earth’s surface is 33 ° C (or 59 ° F) degrees warmer because of the greenhouse effect. b) Energy enters the earth’s atmosphere because the atmosphere is not visible to sunlight. The earth emits in the infrared wavelength, so energy is trapped until the ratio of input and output is equal. c) Venus is extremely hot because of its closeness to the sun. Also, the high temperatures boiled liquid water and made it impossible for CO 2 to be taken out of the atmosphere and put back into rocks. The atmosphere became far denser, and resulted in a very strong greenhouse effect. 3. a) No, Mars only consists of one tectonic plate because its crust is too thick. b) No, Mars and Venus do not have those characteristics since there are no subduction zones on those planets. Instead, Venusian and Martian volcanoes probably formed by hot-spot volcanism.
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