37 - How Does Plant Development Proceed? Green yeast: It is...

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How Does Plant Development Proceed? Green yeast: It is used as a model organism—it is small, matures quickly , and its genomes have been fully sequenced. Mutants provide insights into mechanisms of hormones and receptors . Cell division takes place only in meristems , Meristems in non-woody plants are located at the tips (apical meristems) of the shoots and roots; Plants with wood and bark also contain lateral meristems and result in secondary growth; Cell expansion occurs by the uptake of water and maturation (differentiation) occurs after expansion. Hormones : regulatory chemicals that act at low concentrations at sites often quite distant from where they were produced; control flowering, growth of pollen tube, fertilization, and fruit and seed development. *Abscisic acid- stress hormone *Auxins- growth promoters *Brassinosteroids promote stem and pollen tube elongation *Cytokinins- juvenile hormones; promote cell division and auxiliary bud growth. *Ethylene- gas that basically causes aging of fruit Gibberellins: promote seed germination, stem growth, fruit development (look over slide 22) Photoreceptors are pigments associated with proteins; Light acts directly on them, which in turn regulate development. Cells make use of signal transduction pathways. Protein kinase cascades amplify responses to signals just as they do in other organisms; P K gets phophorylated by reacting with ATP and the phosphorylated version controls gene expression Seeds are dormant . As the seed begins to germinate , it takes up water . The growing embryo
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37 - How Does Plant Development Proceed? Green yeast: It is...

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