RUNNING HEAD: Literature Review Paper 1 Literature Review Paper Angelic M. Kinder American Public University
Literature Paper Review 2 Abstract Anxiety and depression occur in a higher rate than normal in elderly adults. Each are common and serious in the elderly. Early detection and treatment are very important to the elderly leading a normal life. There are many risk factors that increase in life for these individuals and they may be more reluctant to seek assistance for issues of mental health
Literature Paper Review 3 Depression in the elderly is a common undiagnosed problem in individuals over age 65. The presentation of symptoms and treatment of depression are different in the elderly from in younger adults. The geriatric population has different treatment options. Risk factors are commonly chronic illness, death of a loved one, disability, injury, disease, and plain loneliness. There are about 7 million elderly adults with depression in the United States. Untreated depression may lead to other chronic illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s. Elderly adults who live in communities and are active are less at risk for depression. Elderly adults who live alone or in homes have the highest rate of depression (Castillo, Begley, Haddad, Sorrentino, & Twum-Fening, 2013). Approximately six million Americans over age 65 are depressed but only about 10% receive treatment. Depression in the elderly causes a significant lack of quality of life in these individuals. The depression can exacerbate existing illnesses and lead to premature death. Some medications can also cause depression; some of the illnesses whose medications can lead to depression include high blood pressure, hormonal imbalances, heart disease, cancer, Parkinson’s disease, arthritis, anxiety, and pain. Risk factors for depression increase, as an individual gets older; it can also make diagnosis more difficult. Elderly generally do not present with the same symptoms of younger adults. These symptoms would include depressed mood, sadness, and loss of interest in activities but can show symptoms such as fatigue and aches and pains. Treatments include medication, social interventions, electroconvulsive therapy, and treating underlying medical conditions. Because elderly metabolize medications at a different rate, more attention must be paid to the amount of medication they are taking as they age (O’Neil, 2007). Depression in the elderly affects upwards of 20% of the population. The elderly population should be well informed of their diagnosis, and have a family support system that can
Literature Paper Review 4 assist them with the diagnosis and treatment options. Many elderly patients have preexisting medical conditions that can worsen depression or other medication that may have adverse effects on medication for depression. A clinical practitioner must consistently monitor pharmacologic treatments in the treatment of depression in the elderly. These would include a monitoring of side effects, signs of worsening depression, and adequate duration of treatment.
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- The Land, Major depressive disorder, Literature Paper Review