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Immigration to Chicago 1880-1920 group disc.

Immigration to Chicago 1880-1920 group disc. - Group 3...

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Group 3 Handout: 2/12/2008 “The New Immigration, 1880 – 1920” City of Big Shoulders by Robert G. Spinney Chapter Seven The New Immigration “Chicago’s story is in many ways the story of newcomers to the city…even so, nothing compares with the large numbers of immigrants who came to the city in the years between 1880 and 1920. All told, about 2.5 million immigrants—most from southern and eastern Europe—came to the city during that period” (123). Poles and Group Solidarity o First came to Chicago in 1850’s Number remained small: 2,000 by 1870 2 nd and 3 rd generations boosted number to 401,000 by 1930 o Very unskilled – few were craftsmen or professionals, many were illiterate and poor They took steel mill and factory jobs, as well as jobs in the stockyards o By 1890 there were 5 distinct polish neighborhoods Polish Downtown – near NW side (86% Polish) South Chicago – near steel mills (82% Polish) Lower West Side 2 neighborhoods near the Union Stockyards o “Institutional Completeness” Poles created Polish institutions to assist them in adapting to life in America Resulted in assimilation Death Benefit societies o Polish Catholic Church By 1910, 140,000 of 210,000 Poles in Chicago were church members Every Polish Catholic Church had its own Parochial school Polish Catholics wanted independence from the Roman Catholic church George William Mundelein—archbishop until 1939—didn’t want ethnic churches—the Poles unity forced him to grant them a degree of national separatism o Poles displayed a non-deteriorating group solidarity Prevented them from wielding political power o Community oriented o Not risk takers—faithfully labored in their factory and stockyard jobs Italians and Temporary Immigration o Began immigrating as early as the 1850’s o Population was small until about 1890 o By 1920, there were almost 60,000 Italian-born immigrants in Chicago o Most were poor and unsuccessful (they were farmers coming during industrialization) o Three distinct patterns of immigration: Temporary Immigration Planned to stay for 5 years then return to Italy Males coming to work and return home with money Under representation: lack of ability to organize politically Padrone system
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The padrone , an English speaking Italian labor broker, helped immigrants find work and would then earn a percentage of their earnings Easy to move without family Didn’t learn skilled labor because of short stay Did not learn English Campanilismo
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