1 - Hist 071 Part I

1 - Hist 071 Part I - Cardinal Richelieu Consecrated as a...

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Cardinal Richelieu – Consecrated as a bishop in 1607, he later entered politics, becoming a Secretary of State in 1616. Richelieu soon rose in both the Church and the state, becoming a cardinal in 1622, and King Louis XIII's chief minister in 1624. He remained in office until his death in 1642. By restraining the power of the nobility, he transformed France into a strong, centralized state. Richelieu was also famous for his patronage of the arts; most notably, he founded the Académie française, the learned society responsible for matters pertaining to the French language. Thomas Hobbes – (April 5, 1588–December 4, 1679) He was an English philosopher, whose famous 1651 book Leviathan set the agenda for nearly all subsequent Western political philosophy. His main concern is the problem of social and political order: how human beings can live together in peace and avoid the danger and fear of civil conflict. He poses stark alternatives: we should give our obedience to an unaccountable sovereign (a person or group empowered to decide every social and political issue). Otherwise what awaits us is a ‘state of nature’ that closely resembles civil war – a situation of universal insecurity, where all have reason to fear violent death and where rewarding human cooperation is all but impossible Nicolaus Copernicus – The astronomer who formulated the first modern heliocentric theory of the solar system. About 150 A.D. – The Ptolemaic system drew on many previous theories that viewed Earth as a stationary center of the universe. Stars were embedded in a large outer sphere which rotated relatively rapidly, while the planets dwelt in smaller spheres between — a separate one for each planet. The major parts of Copernican theory are:
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1 - Hist 071 Part I - Cardinal Richelieu Consecrated as a...

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