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Echocardiogram

Echocardiogram - ECHOCARDIOGRAM Vivek Thakkar Tushar Bansal...

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ECHOCARDIOGRAM Vivek Thakkar Tushar Bansal Stephen Sin
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OVERVIEW Introduction to Ultrasound and its properties. Echocardiogram The Doppler principle and frequency analysis From signal to image
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SOUND Mechanical vibration in physical medium Hearing Infra, Audible and Ultrasound Sound can be beamed in a particular direction and can be reflected by small objects
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ULTRASOUND GENERATION Curie Brothers (1880) Mechanical stress Æ Electric charge on surface (Piezoelectric effect) Alternating electric field Æ Change in shape/ thrown into vibration
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ILLUSTRATION A Æ Crystal subjected to alternating voltages. B Æ Propagation with velocity proportional to velocity of sound in that medium. C Æ Encounters a reflecting point. D Æ Mechanical disturbance of crystal. Voltage Æ Echo strength.
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SOUND PROPERTIES Sound causes particles of medium to vibrate. Compressed regions Æ Compression Farther apart regions Æ rarefaction These regions generate micro pressure inside tissues. Amplitude depends on voltage to the crystal. Voltage selection is a compromise due to intensity.
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ULTRASOUND PROPERTIES A Æ Waves traveling in opposite direction.
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