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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 Financial Statements, Cash Flow, and Taxes ANSWERS TO END-OF-CHAPTER QUESTIONS 3-1 a. The annual report is a report issued annually by a corporation to its stockholders. It contains basic financial statements, as well as managements opinion of the past years operations and the firms future prospects. A firms balance sheet is a statement of the firms financial position at a specific point in time. It specifically lists the firms assets on the left-hand side of the balance sheet, while the right-hand side shows its liabilities and equity, or the claims against these assets. An income statement is a statement summarizing the firms revenues and expenses over an accounting period. Net sales are shown at the top of each statement, after which various costs, including income taxes, are subtracted to obtain the net income available to common stockholders. The bottom of the statement reports earnings and dividends per share. b. Common Stockholders Equity (Net Worth) is the capital supplied by common stockholders--capital stock, paid-in capital, retained earnings, and, occasionally, certain reserves. Paid-in capital is the difference between the stocks par value and what stockholders paid when they bought newly issued shares. Retained earnings is the portion of the firms earnings that have been saved rather than paid out as dividends. c. The statement of retained earnings shows how much of the firms earnings were retained in the business rather than paid out in dividends. Note that retained earnings represents a claim against assets, not assets per se. Firms retain earnings primarily to expand the business, not to accumulate cash in a bank account. The statement of cash flows reports the impact of a firms operating, investing, and financing activities on cash flows over an accounting period. d. Depreciation is a non-cash charge against tangible assets, such as buildings or machines. It is taken for the purpose of showing an assets estimated dollar cost of the capital equipment used up in the production process. Amortization is a non-cash charge against intangible assets, such as goodwill. EBITDA is earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization. Mini Case: 3 - 1 e. Operating current assets are the current assets used to support operations, such as cash, accounts receivable, and inventory. It does not include short-term investments. Operating current liabilities are the current liabilities that are a natural consequence of the firms operations, such as accounts payable and accruals. It does not include notes payable or any other short-term debt that charges interest. Net operating working capital is operating current assets minus operating current liabilities. Total net operating capital is sum of net operating working capital and operating long-term assets, such as net plant and equipment. assets, such as net plant and equipment....
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- Spring '07
- Corporate Finance