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ad unit 1 - Adolescent Psychology Unit 1...

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Adolescent Psychology Unit 1 Introduction - adolescence- a series of transitions from immaturity to maturity - early adolescence- 10-13 yrs old - middle adolescence- 14-17 yrs old - late adolescence/youth/emerging adulthood- 18-22 yrs. old - fundamental changes of adolescence- geological, cognitive and social - ecological perspective on human development- can’t understand development w/o examining the settings in which it occurs -the contexts of adolescence – family, peer groups, schools, work and leisure - are themselves shaped and defined by the larger society in which young people live Chapter 1 Biological Transitions - primary sex characteristics - development of the gonads, the sex glands - secondary sex characteristics- changes in the genitals and breasts, growth of pubic, facial and body hair and further development of the sex organs -No new bodily systems develop nor new hormones produced at puberty. -The average male produces more androgens than estrogens during adolescence, and the average female more estrogens than androgens. -Organizing role of hormones- shape the brain in ways that might not have been manifested in behavior until childhood or even adolescence -The presence or absence of certain hormones early on may program the brain and nervous system to develop in certain ways later on -Rising levels of leptin, a protein produced by fat cells, may be the most important trigger for puberty. -Obesity is associated with earlier puberty among girls, but w/ later puberty among boys. -The hypothalamus initiates a cascade of hormonal events that ultimately result in the sexual maturation of the individual. - adrenarche- maturation of the adrenal glands -Most humans experience their first sexual attraction around age 10. -During puberty, the average individual grows about 10 inches taller, matures sexually and develops an adult-proportioned body. -The simultaneous release of growth hormone, thyroid hormones and androgens stimulates rapid acceleration in height and weight. - peak height velocity- the time at which the adolescent is growing most rapidly -Nearly half of one’s adult body weight is gained during adolescence. -The growth spurt occurs on average about 2 years earlier among girls than boys. -Bones become harder, more dense and more brittle. -Much of the height gain during puberty results from an increase in torso length rather than in leg length. -Extremities – the head, hands and feet – are the first to accelerate in growth. Then accelerated growth occurs in the arms and legs, followed by torso and shoulder growth. -In both sexes, muscular development is rapid and closely parallels skeletal growth; but muscle tissue grows faster in boys than in girls. -Adolescent girls’ diets, especially those of African-American girls, are generally less
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adequate nutritionally than the diets of boys are, particularly in important minerals like iron. -
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