Review Notes Ex2Fall07 - Review Notes Ex 2 Chaps 07-08 Ant...

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Review Notes Ex 2 Chaps 07-08 Ant 2511 Spring 07 Chapter 07 Part 1 Primate Behavior Chapter Outline THE EVOLUTION OF BEHAVIOR 0. Study of behavior in free-ranging primates 1. From “ecological” and “evolutionary” perspective 2. Relationship between: 0. Behaviors 1. The natural environment 2. Biological traits of species studied Ecological 3. Relationship between organism and all aspects of environment 4. For example food resources and predators Behavior 5. May or may not be deliberate 6. Not necessarily the results of conscious decision making. Behavioral Ecology 0. An approach that focuses on the relationship between behaviors, the natural environment, and biological traits of the species. 1. Some behaviors are influenced by genes 2. Subject to natural selection Primate Social Structure 7. Social structures are the results of natural selection in specific habitats. 8. Social behavior is one of the major topics in primate research SOME FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE SOCIAL STRUCTURE 9. Factors include 10. Body size 11. Distribution of resources 12. Predation Body Size 3. Larger animals require fewer calories by weight than smaller animals. 4. Larger animals are better able to retain heat 1
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5. Overall energy requirements are less than for smaller animals. Distribution of Resources 0. Leaves can be abundant will support large groups of animals. 1. Fruits and nuts occur in clumps. These can most efficiently be exploited by smaller groups of animals. 2. Some species that rely on foods distributed in small clumps tend to be protective of resources Predation 6. Primates are vulnerable to many types of predators 7. Where predation pressure is high, large communities are advantageous. PRIMATE SOCIAL BEHAVIOR 13. Primates solve major adaptive problems in a “social context” 14. Several behaviors reinforce integrity of group 15. Includes dominance, communication, aggression, affiliation and altruism Dominance 16. Many primate societies are organized into dominance hierarchies. 17. These impose a certain degree of order Displays 18. Displays communicate emotional states 19. Elaborate, complicated, repetitive 20. Gorilla – chest slapping, tear vegetation as threat display Aggression (Against Intrusion) 0. Often to protect individual or group resources Home Range 21. Primate groups are associated with a home range where they remain permanently Core Area 22. Core area is portion within home range 23. Contains the highest concentration of predictable resources 24. The core area can also be said to be a group’s territory, and it’s the portion of the home range defended against intrusion. 2
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Affiliation and Altruism 25. Many behaviors minimize violence 26. Reinforce bonds between individuals and enhance group stability Affiliative Behaviors Grooming 27. Grooming – pick through fur 28. Social grooming common among primates 29. Reinforces social relationships Altruism 30. Behaviors that benefit another while posing risk to oneself, 31. Common in primate species
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Review Notes Ex2Fall07 - Review Notes Ex 2 Chaps 07-08 Ant...

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