Ex4ReviewXoutall07 - Ant View Neandertals Premodern Humans...

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Ant 2511Chap10Pt2Fall07Student View Neandertals: Premodern Humans of the Upper Late Archaic H. sapiens Neandertals Upper Pleistocene 0. Neandertal fossils are as old as 130,000 y.a. 1. Following discussion concerned especially with populations during the last glaciation 2. Began about 75,000 years ago “Classic” Neandertals of Europe 3. Most Neander fossils found in Europe 4. In Europe more “robust” 5. Called “Classic” Neandertals in western Europe 6. Neandertals from other areas are less robust Some Neandertal Features Brain 7. Brain is larger (1,520 cm 3 ) than today’s humans 8. Cold weather adaptation? Cranium and Face 9. Cranium is large, long, low, bulging at sides 10. Browridges arched (not straight like erectus) 11. Face projects (compared to modern) Postcranial 12. Robust, barrel-chested, powerful muscles 13. Shorter limbs 14. May be adaptation to living in cold climate Neandertal Discoveries France and Spain La Chapelle-aux-Saints 15. Southwest France 16. Shallow grave with flexed burial Moula-Guercy 17. Southern France 18. Best evidence of Neandertal cannibalism 19. Broken bones of Neandertals 20. Cut like animal bones 1
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More Recent Neandertal Finds in Western Europe St. Cesaire 21. Southwest France 22. A more recent find – not very old 23. Dates 35,000 y.a. 24. Some “Upper Paleolithic” tools 25. Neandertal borrowing tool making techniques from anatomically modern humans Upper Paleolithic 26. A cultural period usually associated with modern humans 27. (but also found with some Neandertals) Central Europe Kaprina 28. Croatia (Central Europe) 29. One of earliest intentional burials found Vindija Cave 30. Croatia 31. And among most recent Neandertals found 32. Smaller browridge and slight chin development 33. Possible evolutionary trend toward modern Homo sapiens Western Asia 34. “Western Asia” Includes sites in Israel and Iraq Israel Tabun Cave 35. Mt. Carmel in Israel 36. Less robust than European classic 37. Contemporary with modern H. sapiens nearby Kebara Cave 38. Israel 39. Skeleton with most complete pelvis 40. First “hyoid” bone found 41. (base of tongue) Iraq Shanidar 42. Shanidar Cave (Iraq) 43. Deliberate burials 44. Severely injured person survived Central Asia 45. Includes Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 2
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Teshik-Tash cave 46. Uzbekistan (Central Europe) 47. Easternmost Neandertal discovered (if Neandertal) 48. Neandertal from France eastward 4,000 miles Culture of Neandertals (see part 3) Ant 2511Chap10Pt3Fall07 Culture of Neandertals** Middle Paleolithic 49. Neandertal associated with cultural period known as “Middle Paleolithic” 50. And stone industry called “Mousterian” industry Mousterian 51. The Mousterian stone tools industry of Middle Paleolithic 52. Characterized by larger proportion of flake tools 53. More flake tools 54. Bone, antler, and ivory very rare Settlements 55. Neandertals lived in open sites, caves, and rock shelters. 56. Fire was used for cooking, warmth, light, and keeping
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2008 for the course ANT 2511 taught by Professor Sinelli during the Fall '08 term at University of Central Florida.

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Ex4ReviewXoutall07 - Ant View Neandertals Premodern Humans...

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