Psych-100 textbook outline unit 3

Psych-100 textbook outline unit 3 - Behavioral Genetics:...

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Behavioral Genetics: (p. 49-60, p. 372-380, p. 546-547) -genes: build and modify bodily structures through interaction w/ the environment produce behavior -Genes affect the body’s development through their influence on the production of protein molecules. -environment: food (provides genes with amino acids), internal chemical environment of the developing individual, and all the evens, objects and other individuals encountered after birth -Experience activates genes, which produce proteins that alter the function of certain neural circuits and thereby produce behavioral change. -The same genes can have different effects, depending on the environment and the mix of other genes. -Cocker-basenji dog hybrids: fear of humans as heritable trait -Mendelian inheritance of a specific language disorder (within the KE family): difficulty in articulating words, distinguishing speech sounds and learning grammar -A single gene can have multiple effects. -Some genes exert their effects by activating sets of other genes, thereby controlling the production of several or many different protein molecules. -Evolution involves alterations in anatomy and behavior derived from alteration in genes. - selective breeding for behavioral characteristics in animals (rat maze learning) - heritability : degree to which variation in a particular trait within a particular population, stems from genetic rather than environmental differences - environmentality : proportion of total trait variance resulting from the environment; 1 – variability coefficient -Twins are useful in separating genetic and environmental effects (common genetics) -Identical twins tend to exhibit similar mental abilities whether or not they were raised together. Genetic dispositions to enjoy certain kinds of activities may promote the similarity in development. -About half the IQ variance in teens and younger kids results from genetic variance, but over 80% of adult IQ variance results from genetic variance. The environment seems to play a greater role in IQ variation amongst youth than adults. -Genetic differences apparently influence the amount of factual knowledge learned just as much as they influence the ability to think quickly or see relationships in novel stimuli. -The IQs of unrelated adoptive siblings positively correlate with each other in childhood but disappears completely once they become adults. -As children grow into adulthood, they increasingly choose their own environments, and their genetic differences influence the kinds of environments they choose. -Those who are genetically similar may choose more similar environments than those who are genetically different, so they remain more similar in intelligence. -People who score high on the “openness to experience” personality trait tend to have higher IQs. -Intellectual engagement increases one’s store of knowledge as well as the capacity for
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2008 for the course PSYC 100 taught by Professor Madigan during the Fall '07 term at USC.

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Psych-100 textbook outline unit 3 - Behavioral Genetics:...

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