Test Guide

Test Guide - Chapter 1: Principles Compression- a...

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Chapter 1: Principles Compression- a compressive force tends to condense material Tension- a tensile force tends to stretch material Shear- a shearing force tends to divide an object along a plane parallel with opposing external forces Torque- is the result of forces which tend to twist an object, resulting in a shearing stress Bending- is the result of forces which tend to deflect a member by inducing tension, compression, and shear Stress- internal forces cause stress within structural members. A stress can be defined as a force per unit of area. Formula: f(stress) = P(force) / A(area) Moment- a moment may be defined as a force acting through a distance. The force(P) X the lever arm(L) = the moment(M) Forces in a Beam - the internal forces are larger at the center and gradually decrease towards the supports. The internal resistive moment within the beam is also reduced as the external moment is reduced; however, the internal and the external moment must be equal if the beam is to resist the applied load.
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Shallow Beam – the forces are large because the distance (lever arm) between the forces is small Deep Beam – the forces are smaller, because the lever arm is much larger Columns- column sections can sustain heavier loads if they are round, square like. Materials- which materials have best resistive forces? Steel – extremely strong in tension, strong at resisting shear (unlike concrete, wood, masonry) Concrete – strong in compression Wood – strong in tension (1/10 of steel though) Masonry – limited by the compression strength of the mortar Beams- stress in a beam will vary from zero at the center of a symmetrical beam to the MAX at the top +rolled sections of steel are designed to place material at the top and bottom (where most effective) + good method of obtaining better utilization of concrete beams is by pre-stressing or post-stressing
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Chapter 2: Bearing Wall Definition – a bearing wall in a structural system that distributes loads which spread gradually through a vertical or near vertical continuous mass to supports. These loads create internal compressive forces and stresses in the wall. Load Distribution – the weight of the wall increases towards its base. If the weight of the compressive stress (f=P/A) of the material is to remain approximately constant, then the area must increase as the load increase; therefore, becoming thicker at its base. (weak compressive materials) – BATTERED STONE WALL TYPE VERTICAL BLOCK WALL (stronger compressive materials) – stress still increases but material is strong enough to withhold, yet not as efficient, since material at top obviously not fully stressed. +increasing the areas of the base with a wall footing will distribute the total weight over larger soil are Load transformation – for maximum efficiency, joist or beams must be closely spaced to distribute load evenly throughout entire wall…. Load distribution will uniformly increase from top to bottom, causing a
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Test Guide - Chapter 1: Principles Compression- a...

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