Masonry Notes

Masonry Notes - Syllabus MORTAR as much a part of masonry...

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Syllabus MORTAR as much a part of masonry itself cushions the units giving them full bearing seals units to keep out water/wind bonds units into monolithic structure affects the finish MORTAR made of portland cement-hydrated lime, sand, water mix is necessary as all cement makes mix harsh lime adds smoothness and workability can come in any color (standard being light and dark) LIME made from burnt limestone and seashells(calcium carbonate) quicklime results and then water removed to make slaked or hydrated lime MORTAR TYPES M High Strength-for structures w/high lateral or compressive loads severe frost action, masonry below grade S Medium High Strength – for structures w/high flexural strength N Medium Strength – General use above grade O Medium low Strength – non load-bearing interior walls Like cement, mortar cures by hydration and must be used efficiently. BRICK MASONRY fire resistant and small in scale traditional brick is shaped and dimensioned to fit the human hand small bricks less likely to crack during drying and are easy to install can adapt to many geometries and patterns. BRICK MASONRY made from clay and shales dug from pits (local material) crushed, ground, screened, to fine consistency 3 Major Processes 1. soft mud-oldest, 20 to 30% water, pressed into molds, water-struck, sand-struck, sand-mold 2. dry mud-used for clays that shrink excessively, 10% water, high pressure press 3. stiff mud-used most today, 12-15% water, extruded and then cut BRICK MASONRY Bricks are fired or burned in a kiln, periodic or continuous. In the old days they were fired under earth in a loose stack (a clamp) bricks close to fire burned (clinker) close but not burnt (facing)undercooked, used as filler or thrown out. Stage 1 – water-smoking or dehydration Stage 2 – oxidation and vitrification (1800 to 2400 degrees) ceramic Stage 3 – flashing for finishing entire process can take 40 to 150 hours BRICK MASONRY Modular brick is 3.5”w by 7 5/8”h by 2 ¼” t Standard is 3.5”w by 8”h by 2 ¼” Roman is 3.5”w by 11 5/8”h by 1 5/8” King is 3”w by 9 5/8”h by 2 5/8” Typically 3 courses to 8 inches. 3 mortar jts. H to 1 course 1 jt. W Can be cored, hollow, or frogged. can be made in custom shapes - sills, jambs, copings, angles, etc. BRICK MASONRY Selection based on size, color, molding process Also based on where and what for WHERE Grade SW – Severe weathering Grade MW – moderate weathering Grade NW – negligible weathering WHAT FOR
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Grade SW – contact w/ground, saturated, region Grade MW – above ground, region Grade NW – indoors Fire brick – high temperatures (special clays, firing, small jts.) QUALITY Type FBX – mech. Perfection, narrow color range, minimum size variation Type FBS – medium variablity Type FBA - non-uniform in all aspects BRICK LAYING laid in position for visual and structural reasons wythe – vertical layer one brick thick, simplest wall is one wythe of stretchers- laid horiz. w/face II 2 wythe – headers req’d. to bond wythes
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Masonry Notes - Syllabus MORTAR as much a part of masonry...

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