Fund. A - Energy

Fund. A - Energy - Fundamentals A: Physical Properties...

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A.1 – Physical Properties States of matter Solid – rigid form of matter Liquid – fluid form of matter with a well defined surface Gas – fluid form of matter that will fill the vessel containing it Physical vs. Chemical Properties Physical properties – characteristics we can observe or measure w/o changing the substance melting point electrical conductivity color density boiling point thermal conductivity odor hardness atomic radius refractive index malleability ductility ionization energy allotropes Chemical Properties – ability of a substance to change into another substance (rearrangement of atoms and bonds in a molecule). Key words: Reacts with Ferments Rusts Burns Intensive vs. extensive properties Intensive properties – Independent of mass Density Extensive Properties – depends on the mass of the sample Mass Volume Density is an intensive property that is a ratio of two extensive properties D = m/V Precision vs. accuracy accuracy is the degree of conformity of a measured or calculated quantity to its actual (true) value. precision , (reproducibility or repeatability) the degree to which further measurements or calculations will show the same or similar results high accuracy low accuracy low precision high precision
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A.2 Energy – a measure of the capacity to do work ↑ energy = ↑ capacity to do work Unit – Joule (J) = kg x m 2 S 2 We normally use kJ = 10 3 J (or 1,000 J) In any chemical change energy is involved Either given off or absorbed 3 contributions to energy 1. Kinetic energy (E k ) – the energy a body possesses due to motion E k = 1 mv 2 m = mass (kg) v = velocity (ms -1 ) 2 How much energy will it take a person who weighs 85 kg to accelerate to 10 m/s? E k = 1 (85 kg) (10 m/s) 2 (4250 or 4 x 10 3 J) 2 2. Potential energy (E p ) energy an object possesses on account of its position in a field of force. There is no general formula because it depends on the type of force. Gravitational and Coulomb are two
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2008 for the course CHEM 6A taught by Professor Pomeroy during the Winter '08 term at UCSD.

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Fund. A - Energy - Fundamentals A: Physical Properties...

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