Week 1B - January 9 2008 Week 1B Lecture 2 Genes and...

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January 9, 2008 Week 1B Lecture 2: Genes and Behavior Egas Moniz o Portuguese tried to manage the mentally ill Behave neurotically Want to treat better o Had a primate lab of a chimp named Becky Example of how mentally ill would behave Outburst, hard to manage 1935 o Chimpanzee Becky calm and manageable after destruction/removal of prefrontal  cortex Performed surgery After she recovered, she was calm and manageable Idea: take findings from single case studies and apply to humans Surgery would damage their prefrontal cortex just like becky 1936 o Moniz and neurosurgeon report successful attenuation of psychosis after  prefrontal leucotomy Similar to lobotomy Leucotome is a needle like instrument
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Inserted 6 times into the patient’s brain with the cutting wire  retracted After each insertion the cutting wire Transorbital Procedure (1945) o 10 years later, new procedures o “One Flew Over The Cuckoo’s Nest” by Ken Casey People were in psycho homes o Freeman discovered if you go between the eyeballs and the nose, squiggle a  needle there Quick and dirty No drilling holes in patients skulls Rapid procedure o Sever prefrontal nerve tracts o Over 40,000 lobotomies in US alone o 1949 Moniz receives a Nobel Prize in Physiology & Medicin Lobotomy Results o Appeal Wildly popular because mentally ill patients showed Decreased agitation and emotion Little intellectual deterioration No other effective treatment for mental illness then o Problems: Notice there was a side effect
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Permanent impairment in planning ability and responsiveness in  some o Sounds mild, but really dramatic o Prefrontal cortex damage = disrupts your society  inhibitions Found urinating, masturbation, bad-mouthing in  public Not best treatment for mentally ill o Abandoned (1950’s): side effects, into of antipsychotic meds Thorazine Psycho-pharmacologist found out it was more effective What wasn’t good about this scientific method? o Lack of large controlled study Case studies was too small Just Becky and one other patient that they got the results on o Attending surgeons conducted evaluation of outcome – problem? Doctors themselves who came up No replication Needed so results could be actually valid Dichotomies in psychology o Division, separating something into two parts o Cartesian Dualism (1600’s) Mind and brain are separate entities
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During Renaissance of science when researchers began researching  natural phenomenon Before: Roman Catholic Church Findings conflict
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