Fund. C & D - Compounds, Ions & Nomenclature

Fund. C & D - Compounds, Ions &...

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Fundamentals C & D: Compounds 2 or more different elements present in a specific ratio Ex – H 2 0 always has 2 hydrogens and one oxygen can’t have 3 hydrogens – that would be a different compound This is known as the law of constant composition 2 types of compounds organic – contain carbon inorganic – all other compounds Generally: Metal + non-metal – ionic compound (ionic bond) Non-metal = non-metal – molecular compound (covalent bond) Molecule Smallest form of a compound (most basic unit – like a reduced fraction) Molecular formula – the actual number of molecules in the compound Glucose – C 6 H 12 O 6 Empirical formula – the relative number of each atom in a compound Lowest common denominator Empirical formula for glucose is CH 2 O Ions The periodic table tells you what ion will form! Left – cations Right – anions Diatomic ions – CN - (cyanide) Polyatomic ions – NH 4 + (ammonium ion) Oxyanions – contain O PO 4 3- Naming simple cations and anions The monoatomic anions are named by adding the suffix -ide to the stem of the name of the nonmetallic elements Ex – Chloride ion The monoatomic cations bear the same names of the elements with the addition of the word 'ion'. Ex – sodium ion Naming Type II cations – transition metals Type II cations: Some metals (especially the transition metals) can form more than one type of cation, such as Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ or Cu + and Cu 2+ . To distinguish between these ions indicated the charge of the ion with a Roman numeral in parentheses (called the Stock number) immediately following the ion's name. Ex - Fe 2+ iron(II) ion and Fe 3+ iron(III) ion Naming Type I ionic compounds: metal + non-metal
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Type I: consisting of a metal combined with a nonmetal (e.g. NaCl) These metals always make the same cation so there is no need to list a Roman numeral. To name an ionic compound, one should name the cation first, then, name the anion (with the word 'ion' omitted). It is not necessary to indicate the number of cations and anions in the compound because it is understood that the total positive charges carried by the cations must equal the total negative charges carried by the anions. Ex – NaCl is always one Na and one Cl (because Na + and Cl - are the only stable ions that can form) CaCl 2 - calcium chloride Naming type II covalent compounds: transition metal + non-metal Type II: consisting of a metal combined with a nonmetal but these metals can form different cations so we need to list the Roman numeral. Ex - iron oxide can be either Fe 2 O 3 = iron (III) oxide FeO = iron (II) oxide Naming Type III ionic compounds: non-metal compounds Type III: These contain only non-metals! 1)
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2008 for the course CHEM 6A taught by Professor Pomeroy during the Winter '08 term at UCSD.

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Fund. C & D - Compounds, Ions &...

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