Philosohy_notes

Philosohy_notes - 1. James Rachel's: Egoism and moral...

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1. James Rachel’s: Egoism and moral Skepticism Fable of the invisible ring o Two rings, the allow you to be invisible, one is given to a good man one is given to a bad man o Once the fear of reprisal is gone why shouldn’t man do as he pleases, taking what he wants Psychological Egoism: is the view that all men are selfish in everything they do, that is, the only motive from which anyone ever acts o Not always true : o Sometimes we do things that we don’t want to do as a means to achieving a end. Ex; going to the dentist in order to stop a toothache o Sometimes we promise others that will do something and even though we don’t want to do it we do it anyways because we feel obligated to do so The objects of my wants determines weather or not I am acting selfish o No reason to support psychological egoism Ethical Egoism: is the normative view of how men ought to act. A person is always justified in doing whatever is in his own interest, regardless of the effect on others o not necessarily true, it is best that the individual makes it appear as though his interest are in the best interests of others, and thus others will have the same interest for his interests , so he himself will be an egoist but he will want others to think him and altruist o egoist= a conceited and self-centered person o altruist= someone who makes charitable donations intended to increase human well-being o ethical egoism cannot be universalized
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I cannot hold that it is all right for me to drink your beers but then complain when you drink mine 2. William Shaw: Ethical Relativism 2 types of Ethical Relativism: o Cultural Ethical Relativism: Makes wrong and right relative to one’s culture. What is right is what ones culture says it right and what is wrong is what ones culture says is wrong. In short morality is relative to society. Abortion is immoral in Spain because the Spanish believe it to be immoral and abortion is morally permissible in Japan because they believe it to be moral there Morality is relative to the person or the particular standards of a particular culture In order for something to become moral in a society it must become the majority of the view, minorities can never be moral Since an individual might be in several overlapping societies all at the same time, they may receive conflicting moral instructions all of which are morraly correct according to a relativist
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o Individual Ethical Relativism: Right and wrong are relative to the individuals opinion, what he thinks is right and wrong. This a week view because then there would be no point to arguing morality, as whatever you thought to be moral would then be moral and whatever I thought to be moral would then be moral for me Conclusion: By contending that the moralities of different societies are all equally valid, the relativist holds that there can be no nonethocentirc ground for preferring one moral code over another, that one cannot speak of moral progress. Moralities may change, but
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Philosohy_notes - 1. James Rachel's: Egoism and moral...

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