ASthma - BIOM 204 Lecture notes I Paper topics A Letter to...

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BIOM 204 January 22, 2008 Lecture notes I. Paper topics A. Letter to the Editor due January 31 B. Nanotech applications of molecular motors C. Biological power supplies for macro- or nanotechnology D. Targeted drug delivery E. Molecular imaging Asthma, Cell Morphology and membranes Ch.4 Objectives: - Review of basic cell structure - Membrane structure and composition - The pathogenesis (Growth or development of a disease) of asthma attacks I. Asthma A. Definition: reversible airways obstruction not due to any other disease B. Symptoms 1. Coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath 2. Chest pain 3. Expectoration of thick, stringy mucus C. In severe attacks 1. Rapid Breathing 2. Cyanosis (turning blue), indicating hypoxia( lack of oxygen) 3. Respiratory Acidosis (decrease blood pH) from hypoventilation ( lack of breathing) 4. Death from respiratory failure D. Causes 1. Smooth muscles line bronchiole 2. Tightened muscles and inflammation cause attacks E. Impact 1. Incidence a. Around 7% of the population under 18 years of age b. Rate has doubled over the last twenty years c. 2 in 10,000 die of disease
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d. 7 th ranked chronic condition in USA 2. Economics a. Costs for asthma care in USA are estimated at $14 billion, with direct expenditures accounting for $9.4 billion F. Etiology (Cause) 1. Uncertain 2. Genetic and environmental factors play a role 3. Current opinion is that the environment does not cause the disease, but rather exacerbates (bring attack on or make it worse) it. II. Basic cell structure- membranes A. Functions 1. Compartmentalization: raising concentrations a. Helps maintain adequately high concentration of enzymes and substrates b. Lots of reactions inside cells are not energetically favorable. Reactants in high concentration force reactions. 2. Compartmentalization: Localization of function a. Control concentrations on each side 3. Regulation of transport 4. Detection of signals through receptors a. Cell able to respond to particular stimuli 5. Cell-cell and cell-substrate binding through adhesion receptors 6. Functions are as dependent upon proteins associated with membranes as of the membranes themselves.
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