PSY 101- notes ch.11 & 12

PSY 101- notes ch.11 & 12 - Critical period is an...

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Critical period is an age range during which certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally or along a certain path. Sensitive period is an optimal age range for certain experiences, but if those experiences occur at another time, normal development is still possible. Cross-sectional design we would compare people of different ages at the same point in time. Longitudinal design repeatedly tests the same cohort as it grows older. Sequential design which combines the cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches. Zygote fertilized egg, embryo develops from the end of week 2 through week 8 after conception. Teratogens are external agents that cause abnormal prenatal development Cephalocaudal principle reflects the tendency for development to proceed in a head to foot direction. Proximodistal principle states that the development begins along the innermost parts of the body and continues towards the outermost parts. Schemas which are organized patterns of thought and action. Assimilation is the process by which new experiences are incorporated into existing schemas. Accommodation is the process by which new experiences cause existing schemas to change. Sensorimotor stage understanding their world primarily through sensory experiences and physical (motor) interactions with objects. Object permanence the understanding that an object continues to exist even when it no longer can be seen. Preoperational stage in which they represent the world symbolically through words and mental images but do not yet understand basic mental operation and rules. Conservation the principle that basic properties of objects, such as their volume, mass, or quantity, stay the same (are “conserved”) even though their outward appearance may change. Egocentrism difficulty in viewing the world form someone else’s perspective. Concrete operational stage can perform basic mantel operations concerning problems that involve tangible objects and situations. Formal operational stage in which individuals are able to think logically and systematically about both concrete and abstract problems. Form hypotheses and test in a thoughtful way. Zone of proximal development
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This note was uploaded on 04/24/2008 for the course PSY 101 taught by Professor N/a during the Fall '07 term at Bay State.

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PSY 101- notes ch.11 & 12 - Critical period is an...

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