Philosophy Final Review

Philosophy Final Review - Define: Pure paternalism The...

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Define: Pure paternalism The people who are coerced by these laws are the same as the people who are supposed to be benefited. Impure paternalism These laws restrict the behavior of different people from those they are supposed to benefit. Contractarianism morality consists in a set of rules that people do or can agree to abide by. the people protected by the rules are the same ones who are bound by the rules. Moral agent Only humans are moral agents. If something is wrong then you shouldn’t do it. Moral subject Have moral status of some kind. Theological voluntarism It is God who made morality what it is. Hypothetical consent It is okay to interfere with someone if they would consent to it under certain circumstances. Externalities A cost to the decision you make that is not your cost, but the cost of someone else. Explain: Explain the difference between moralism and paternalism. With moralism, things are illegal because they are immoral. Paternalism is when the government makes coercive laws for your own good. Explain why the irreversibility of some decisions might play a role in justifying some kinds of paternalism. We want to be careful about ensuring against making bad decisions, when those decisions are irreversible. So maybe restrictive laws would provide social insurance against making bad decisions in irreversible cases. Name and explain two of the four main problems we considered for the Vatican’s argument that sex between men is wrong? 1) Overgeneralization: according to the Vatican, exactly the same thing that is wrong with sex between men is wrong with post-menopausal sex. 2) Even if the Vatican is right about the distinctive value of sex, their conclusions about what sort of sex is permissible don’t directly follow. Explain why the wrongness of pre-marital sex can be harder to explain than the wrongness of extra-marital sex. According to the Natural law ethics, which the vatican’s position is based upon, pre-marital sex seems to fulfill the requirements of mutual-self giving, the finality of sex, and true love. It is hard to show that only marriage can meet the “true love” requirement for the act to be “right”. Explain what appears to be problematic about the idea that marriage is essentially about procreation. Sterile couples, should they not get married. Is their sex immoral? Explain what appears to be problematic about the idea that marriage is essentially about love. 1) Most marriages don’t involve love.
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2) What compelling interest does the government have, in cultivating love? Explain the Jefferson-Truth Problem. If you say, for example, that women deserve the same rights as men to vote because they’re just as smart, then gender equality turns on empirical results. What would happen if it turned out that women were not as smart as men, should we turn on gender equality? Explain both the Line Drawing Problem and the Explanatory Problem for any attempt to explain what
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Philosophy Final Review - Define: Pure paternalism The...

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