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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to the Psychology of Learning Overview of the Next 2-3 Lectures Locate Psychology of Learning within the History of Psychology and Philosophy of Psychology Review Major Concepts and Applications of Mainstream "Learning Psychology" Classical Conditioning (Ivon. Pavlov to Present) Operant Conditioning (Burrius F. Skinner to Present) Social Learning Theory (Albert Bandura is principal founder; Seligman's work is also central) Historical Roots of Modern Learning Theory Pavlov was a physiologist--he stumbled into research on "associative learning" and developed idea of "classical conditioning" The Legacy of Edward Thorndike: "The Law of Effect" (1911) Effect" consequences of behavior determine its survival partially common sense, but at the time it wasn't really. Behavior survives. Consequences are what continue because that's what is reinforced and remembered. Legacy of B.F. Skinner (1938, The Behavior of Organisms) Idea of "contingencies of reinforcement" built upon Thorndike's concepts Philosophical Changes in Psychology: From Structuralism to Behaviorism and Beyond The History of Modern Psychology began with Wilhelm Wundt, who founded what came to be seen as a "school" of psychology focused on the "structure" of consciousness, the building blocks of perception. Proponents of this point of view were called "structuralists" and their school "Structuralism" What are the underlying elements/structure of the mind and consciousness? Structuralists, led by Wundt, studied the elements of perception ("atoms of the mind") by using the methodology of "introspectionism" the "i individuals reflect on their own consciousness and talk about it out loud. Psychology was revolutionized by John Watson in 1920's, who articulated a radical philosophy of psychology called "Behaviorism." began with a "Behaviorism. critique of structuralism. Psych is really only about behavior says JW. Reject introspection and structuralism as too subjective and opinionated because it should be only about objectivity. What we can see and measure objectively Watson and the Behaviorists rejected introspection and the study of consciousness in favor of the objective analysis of behavior alone. They said psychology should be about the study of what can be seen and observed, it should be an S-R Psychology: Stimuli and Responses are observable and objective, and should be the sole object of study in psychology Skinner popularized behaviorism further but was founded in belief by Watson, extending its reach in academic psychology through the 1960's, continuing to today Philosophical Changes in Contemporary Views of Learning: Learning is no longer conceived as S-R psychology alone. Instead, S-O-R models dominate (where O = "Organismic" events: internal, cognitive, mental events with neurobiological underpinnings) there are mediating processes between the stimulus and the response. Examples of "O" variables: cognitive processes (attitudes, thinking, perception, vicarious learning, "mental maps"), emotional processes, biological mediating variables Social Learning Theory rests on S-O-R conceptualizations Learning I: Basic Concepts In Classical Conditioning: Classical Conditioning involves a process of what Pavlov called "stimulus substitution" (a process of "associative learning" wherein stimuli are associated and one comes to substitute for another). he receives the nobel prize for this idea. Pavlov's Original Discovery and Terminology, Diagrammed: UnConditionedStimulus automatically causes an UnConditionedResponse CS CR UCS = UNLEARNED stimulus; CS=learned stiumlus? CS=learned stiumlus? UCR = UNLEARNED response; CR=learned response similar to but not the CR=learned same. ? The UCS automatically elicits the UCR (reflex) So for Pavlov the UCS was _food__ and the UCR was ___salivation___ CS (previously neutral S) is paired repeatedly, with temporal contiguity, with UCS Over Trials (temporal pairings), CS comes to automatically elicit a response (CR) that closely resembles the UCR (Note: CR is not identical to the UCR reflex, but instead is a learned automatic associative response with similar form) So for Pavlov the CS was ___bell__ and the CR was __salivation___ Next figures portray Pavlov's canine salivation experimental situation: More Principles of CC (be able to define each term and give examples) : Once a stimulus acquires conditioned properties through stimulus substitution, the brain also learns to: Generalize among stimuli (stimulus generalization): similar reactions to (stimulus similar stimuli Check in TEXTBOOK Discriminate among stimuli (stimulus discrimination): the absence of (stimulus stimulus generalization Extinguish learned associations (extinction): The process of weakening (extinction learning associations Next Slide shows more principles of CC: Acquisition of CR's: note graph in book. Extinction of CR's:responding less to a conditioned stimulus over time Spontaneous Recovery of CR's: even if you go through CR extinction, if you reintroduce the CS you have a rebound.. example- anorexia rebounds. Reintroduce the idea of not eating to a recovering anorexic and they will at least for a few days return to patterns. Beyond Spit: Emotional Learning Involves CC Positive and Negative emotions are acquired initially and maintained as a result of classical conditioning processes. Think, e.g., about why you "like" the products you use, or the foods you prefer? Has illness ever conditioned you to strongly dislike some foods? Why does some music, or sensations of physical touch, or smells, make you "happy"? Why are you anxious with some people, or slow to trust others, or grumpy under particular circumstances? Point: our feelings are learned through associative processes Videoclip: The Case of Little Albert. John Watson Applied Pavlov's Associative Learning (Classical Conditioning) to Albert's Emotional Learning of Fear Here-in we see original footage of what today would be unethical learning trials. Mowrer is a manic depressant psychologist that created... Videoclip illustrates Mowrer's Two-Factor Theory of Learning: classical conditioning to operant conditioning using the case of little Albert. Factor 1: 1) Fear is learned through classical conditioning: previously neutral stimuli acquire their fear-inducing properties via stimulus substitution, generalization, and discrimination albert learned to be scared of the rat because of the loud noise with the rat. fear had to be induced. Stimulus Substitution: UCSUCR Loud Gong noise- - - Startled baby CSCR Rat that was paired with the gong- - - afraid baby (above is Factor 1 in Mowrer's 2-factor theory) theory) Factor 2: 2) Fear is maintained through Operant Conditioning, also called Instrumental Conditioning. Specifically: little Alberta is older, maybe 2, presented with the rat and immediately moves away because she's been taught to be afraid of rats. Once she moves away her fear and anxiety decreases. avoidance responses are Operant behaviors (they operate on the environment), also called Instrumental behaviors (they have an instrumental effect on the environment). Avoidance behaviors are often strengthened by their consequences. This strengthening is called "reinforcement". Remember, all reinforcement involves an increase in the behavior preceding it. negative reinforcement is the removal of something negative Avoidance behavior leads to fear reduction because the consequence of the behavior involves removal of an aversive stimulus. Thus avoidance is "negatively reinforced", which is to say it is strengthened by the reduction in fear. (an increase in avoidance behavior follows the removal of fear/anxiety) so, avoidance learning--withdrawal, avoidance behaviors--increases in frequency because it is negatively reinforced; AND, this reinforced; guarantees that extinction cannot occur because the learner effectively never confronts the CS again! one never has contact with that which they are afraid of. Never deals directly with the problem so it never goes away. For Little Albert, Identify Examples of the following CC principles: Stimulus Substitution (factor 1, above): Stimulus Generalization (which animals?): rabbit, dog Stimulus Discrimination (which animals?): monkey Extinction (Principle applied by Mary Cover Jones to de-condition children's fears). How would you "extinguish" Little Albert's fear?-- Exposure to the rats and other fears. Avoidance never does it. Positive reinforcement - - - candy, hugs and affection, take away the loud noise and replace it with music that he enjoys, modeling enjoyment with the fears. We don't ever unlearn, we relearn on top of what we already have learned. Learning of fear takes place in Amygdala. Storage of that memory is in the frontal lobes (thought, reasoning, judgement, planning, higher mental processes, inhibit emotion). Systematic Desensitization: A Modern Treatment for "Phobias" that Follows Mary Cover Jones Historical Example Behavior therapy for children with intense fears to help them overcome that. systematic desensitization (SD) takes classical conditioning into realm of cognition: visual imagery and mental associations are actively engaged works best with adults because they cooperate. Irrational thinking often causes peoples problems. So we change the way they think. What is SD? A "cognitive-behavioral" gets people to act on their thinking. method of treatment for phobias using the principle of "counterconditioning". Counterconditioning: a Classical Conditioning procedure for weakening a CR by associating the CS (fear-producing stimulus) with a new response incompatible with the fear The SD Technique: The therapist, with the client, develops a hierarchy of feared situtions (CS's; e.g., seeing pictures of snakes, napping with a Boa around your neck). Next, person is taught relaxation + coping imagery and skills learn the difference between tension and relaxation. Then, client applys learned skills while imagining CS's. While you're relaxed. What Happens When Phobic Individuals Practice SD? conditioned fear, a CR, is counterconditioned by newly developed incompatible responses.) Note: practice involves repeated trials, which are forms of pairings of stimuli! Result: Diminishment of Fear achieved through an increase of capacity and motivation for active coping/management of anxiety-producing situations. How Does SD Work? When/if we pair new and incompatible responses(relaxation, normal breathing, coping thoughts/images, voluntary parasympathetic activity in general) with images of CS's, this leads to new CS-CR associations over trials, called "higher-order conditioning". The new learning creates a "safety memory" which can be activated by cortical processes to inhibit fear-output by amygdala. Thus extinction processes of old fear learning typcially involves learning fear-inhibition behaviors via counterconditioning Related Principles EXPOSURE and Extinction are fundamental to behavioral change as result of SD In C. Conditioning Terms, breaking old associative bonds (CS/UCS relations) through exposure, extinction, and re-conditioning leads to learning of new associative bonds A Theoretical Distinction: Note the difference: Systematic Desensitization VS. In Vivo Desensitization Real life is different than imagined life. what is nature of exposure in SD vs. In Vivo Desensitization? A: In SD exposure is ... visual and imagined Whereas in In Vivo Desensitization exposure is ... where therapist devised circumstances create exposure to fear directly in real life. This is found to be very effective in relearning and coping with fears. Gary Larson's Images of "Exposure" Professor Gallagher and his controversial technique of simultaneously confronting the fear of heights, snakes, and the dark. Learning II: Basic Concepts in Operant Conditioning: Reinforcement, Punishment. Positive and Negative Reinforcement Shaping Schedules of Reinforcement and their effects on learning Videoclip: B. F. Skinner's World View What we say to ourselves is subject to the principles of learning through operant conditioning. Shaping Consequences of Behavior determine its survival (as in Thorndike's "law of effect") Complex sequences of behavior are learned gradually, through selective positive reinforcement or shaping of "successive approximations" of target behavior In video-clip, the pigeon is shaped first to turn in a circle, then eventually to solve math problems and play the piano Examples: toilet training; learning a motor skill; learning "manners"; reading; good study habits; social charm and influence Reinforcement: The Fundamental Idea Reinforcement refers to the process of strengthening or increasing the probability of behavior Any Stimulus that increases/strengthens the behavior which precedes it is called a reinforcer; there are positive and negative reinforcers (examples below) Positive Reinforcement When a pleasant/positive stimulus follows a behavior and strengthens it, the behavior is said to have been positively reinforced. Positive Reinforcers: Money (strengthens what sort of behaviors?: Class list); Good Grades; privileges; hugs; high fives; pleasant drug effects on consciousness; social regard/approval; promotions and bonuses; warmfuzzies and other goodies from your honey-bun Is alcohol positively reinforcing? What are the positive reinforcers for drinking alcohol in our culture? Modeling perhaps, Social reinforcement friends encouragement and/or disapproval of not drinking, popularity, Increased behavior shows that something is being reinforced. Decreased behavior shows that something has been punished. Primary reinforcers are things that are biologically fundamental for life (air, food, water) Secondary reinforcers are things that are good for happiness, approval, regard, validation, reward. Negative Reinforcement When a negative/aversive stimulus is terminated/removed following a behavior, resulting in the strengthening of that behavior, the behavior is said to have been negatively reinforced. A Negative reinforcer is the removal of an aversive stimulus, which leads to an increase in the behavior that preceded the removal of the negative stimulus. Examples of Reinforcement (Positive and Negative)Events: a parent gives in to a whining child. What behavior is negatively reinforced here? {Hint: Identify the "aversive stimulus" that is removed; in this case it is __giving in_; then, identify which behavior that immediately preceded the removal of the aversive stimulus is likely to increase in frequency; in this case it is _whining__} What behavior is positively reinforced here? whining saying "I'm sorry" terminates Mom's menacing glances What behavior is negatively reinforced here? apology What behavior is positively reinforced here? menacing glance anxiety is decreased by performing compulsive rituals What behavior is negatively reinforced here? obsessive rituals (washing, cleaning, organizing) headaches stop when aspirin is injested; What behavior is negatively reinforced here? taking aspirin or ibuprofein. staying at home reduces overwhelming social anxiety; What behavior is negatively reinforced here? staying home Injesting Drugs increases when it removes boredom, restlessness, anxiety, depression; What behavior is negatively reinforced here? doing drugs Punishment: The Fundamental Idea Punishment refers to the process of weakening or reducing the probability of behavior Any Stimulus that weakens the strength of, or reduces the probability of, a behavior is called a punisher Examples: Electric Shock; Social Disapproval; Monetary fines; jail terms; spankings; cold shoulders; averted eyes; suspension of privileges; "Bad" Grades Is an aversive stimulus always a punisher?--the case of the class clown can be a positive reinforcement. Why is punishment often ineffective?--the case of the speeding ticket because you get away with it for so long that it doesn't really matter when you finally get caught. Schedules of Reinforcement: Interval Schedules time sequences vs. Ratio Schedules behavior sequences Fixed Schedules reinforcement occurs predictably vs. Variable Schedules reinforcement occurs over an average period of time or behavior Fixed Interval, Fixed Ratio, Variable Interval, Variable Ratio (can you generate an example of each?) FI: Example: Paid according to time worked. FR: Example: Paid according to what you accomplish. VI: Example: Billing schedule, receiving payments following a bill, usually about a month after bill has been sent out. VR: Example: Hard work in school or business is reinforced only occasionally, but these reinforcement occasions often produce strong and lasting effects Acquisition and Maintenance of Behavior Fixed Ratio Schedules--especially FR 1:1 schedules, or "continuous reinforcement"-- produce fastest learning, but behavior extinguishes relatively quickly if contingencies change Partial or Intermittent Reinforcement (best example: variable ratio schedules) produces slower learning of behavior, but these behaviors are the most resistant to extinction Animal and Coaching Teaching Tip: Start with FR: 1:1 then "fade" to partial schedules with increasingly infrequent reinforcement Learning III: Basic Concepts in Social Learning Theory Philosophically, Social Learning Theory was the start of the break from Behaviorism by re-introducing the importance of internal mediating forces--the "O's" in the so-called S-O-R model contrasting with Watson's S-R model. Social Learning Theory Focuses on Observational Learning Phenomena, or Imitation Learning. This type of learning also is sometimes called "Modeling" Social/Observational Learning involves "Vicarious" Learning (or vicarious conditioning, vicarious reinforcement indirect) from observation of "Models." (Definition #3 of "vicarious" at http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary : experienced or realized through imaginative or sympathetic participation in the experience of another) Next Slide Shows Results from a Classic Experiment by Albert Bandura: Bobo Doll Revealing the Influence of Modeling of Aggressive Behavior in Social Learning What is the IV here? film shown, adult punished or reinforced for violence What is the DV here? child's reaction, number of aggressive acts performed by children. Can you describe why these results challenge the strict view of strict behaviorists like Watson and Skinner? Because the children weren't punished or reinforced either way. They simply followed what they had seen. Imitated what was shown to them. Social Learning Theory (Continued) Studies of Modeling seemed to prove, to the Social Learning Theorists, that Direct Reinforcement and Punishment is Unnecessary for Learning. We do not need to be shaped directly; our behavior is influenced by observational learning and cognitive processes We learn not only by direct reinforcement, punishment, and schedules of reinforcement, but also through vicarious reinforcement and/or punishment Four Cognitive "O" factors in S-O-R model are critical for learning: attention: notice things occuring retention: storage, remember reproduction: motor skills for further use of behavior motivation: have to care a bit about whatever it is Relation to Edward Tolman's Latent Learning/Cognitive: We know more than we show in performance (p329-330?) Seligman's Helplessness Model Triadic experiment (yoked design) {see pages 22-30} Group 1: controlable shock edition, or escapable shock edition Group 2: uncontrolable shock edition, or inescapable shock edition Group 3: control group. No shock. Results: Controlable shock,...
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