Fall_2006_developmental_processes

Fall_2006_developmental_processes - Introduction to...

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Introduction to Developmental Psychology Introduction to Developmental Psychology Please familiarize yourself with the theories and developmental stages of the following persons as discussed in your textbook, along with relevant criticisms: Jean Piaget (4 stages of Cognitive Development) Lawrence Kohlberg (3 levels of Moral Development) Eric Erickson (8 stages of Psychosocial Development) Developmental Psychology Defined: Developmental Psychology Defined: the study of the influence of maturation and experience on the emergence and activation of multiple psychological processes across distinct developmental periods The Developmental Periods: The Developmental Periods: Use to map out Eric Erickson's stages and to understand the names and Use to map out Eric Erickson's stages and to understand the names and ages of each Erickson stage. Use to understand the concerns, psychosocial ages of each Erickson stage. Use to understand the concerns, psychosocial concerns, that are associated with Erickson's developmental periods. Prenatal Infancy Childhood Adolescence Early Adulthood Middle Adulthood Late Adulthood The Psychological Processes: at each level of age, developmental psychologists study multiple psychological processes as they relate to the adaptation of persons in their particular environments (e.g., behavior-genetic, physiological, sensory-perceptual, memory and learning, emotional, moral development, thought, language, judgment, problem-solving, personality, psychopathology) One Big Idea in Development: One Big Idea in Development: Nature Vs. Nurture Nature Vs. Nurture (Biology Vs. Environment; Maturation Vs. (Biology Vs. Environment; Maturation Vs. Experience) Experience) one frame on these questions: genotypes, phenotypes, and heritability estimation Genotype: Nature (and Biology/Maturation) Genotype: Nature (and Biology/Maturation)
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Genotypes are given constitutionally at moment of conception: Our genotype is our genetic totality, the biological “blueprint” that “unfolds.” We cannot observe it directly. Phenotype: Nature + Nurture Nature + Nurture Phenotypes are the product of, or interaction between , genotypes and experience/environment: they are the observable characteristics of the organism Heritability refers to a statistical “estimate” of what proportion of the variation in a trait (e.g., “IQ”, “neuroticism”, “shyness”, “narcissism”, “aggressiveness”, etc) in a population can be accounted for by underlying genetic differences between individuals range of influence in a group. not individuals, group. Estimates of heritability are derived from twin, adoption, and family behavior-genetic studies Heritability estimates of personality characteristics, e.g., show that around 50% of the differences between individuals on a variety of important characteristics (aggression, intelligence, friendliness, emotional stability, etc etc) can be attributed to genetic differences between persons.
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