Fall_2006_social_psych - Introduction to Social Psychology...

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Introduction to Social Psychology Introduction to Social Psychology Some Orienting Positions of Social Psychology: Some Orienting Positions of Social Psychology: Social Situations affect us powerfully, both through direct effects on behavior and through how we judge others. “Social situations” are more powerful determinants of behavior than are “individual dispositions” ' Social situations' is the key phrase for social psychologists. 'individual disposition' is focused on by personality psychology. Social Expectations create Social Reality and Internalized Individual Psychological States When explaining or describing the behavior of others, people tend to commit “ The Fundamental Attribution Error,” which is … the tendency to overemphasize the role of the individual (especially when explaining others) and to underemphasize the role of the situation. A related concept is the Actor/Observer Difference : Observers ( persons explaining the behavior of others ) tend to commit the fundamental attribution error Actors ( persons explaining their own behavior ) commit the error much less frequently, commonly explaining/describing their own behavior as related to situational factors Illustration: The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Illustration: The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Figure: Step 1) Perceiver's expectations ---->Step 2) Perceiver's behavior toward the target ----> Step 3) Target's behavior toward the perceiver -------> Step 1) Step 1: Perceiver Impression Formation (Expectations are both actively formed and passively received ) (Catholic's are like that) Step 2: Perceiver Behaves Consistently with Expectations (perceiver expectations are communicated/expressed , often nonverbally and with minimal, if any, consciousness of so-doing) Step 3: Target’s Behavior Adjusts (Unconsciously/reactively) to Perceiver Expectation Robert Rosenthal’s Analysis in the VideoClip on Self-Fulfilling Prophesy in IQ Robert Rosenthal’s Analysis in the VideoClip on Self-Fulfilling Prophesy in IQ Scores: Scores: Brief Review of the experiment: IV: Teacher's expectations of children. This group of students is going to perform exceptionally. They gave the students fake tests (the Harvard test of inflected acquisition). Harvard = smart. The end. Expectations immediately high. DV: Smartness of children Results: Children got smarter when the teacher expected them to get
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smarter and scored higher than would have been expected for them to score on further tests a year later. How Did Teacher Expectations Affect IQ? Rosenthal’s Analysis of Four Purported Causal Factors/Mechanisms Climate: warmer environment, more interactions, emotionally supportive, nicer Input: more material given to higher expectation children Response Opportunity: call more on 'smarter' children and let them talk longer Feedback: more positive statements, more interactions, pushes more for fuller answers. Theoretical Point:
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This note was uploaded on 04/25/2008 for the course PSY 202 taught by Professor Henriques during the Fall '08 term at Wisconsin.

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Fall_2006_social_psych - Introduction to Social Psychology...

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