Fall_2006_Biological_Psychology_two_brain_stucturefunction

Fall_2006_Biological_Psychology_two_brain_stucturefunction...

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Unformatted text preview: 19.Sept.2006 Biopsych part one-finish of notes. Genes Affect Behavior - - - - - Heritability vs Heredity Found that there is a specific set of genes that are alcohol specific. Mice and rats had 'addictive' tendencies. Dopamine receptors differ in alcohol vs non-alcohol animals. Able to manipulate this gene. Mother Nurture- stress-reactive animals. based on environments and raising. gene structure. genetics play big role but nature vs nurture. Central nervous system- brain and spinal chord. runs the show, kind of. peripheral nervous system connects the CNS to the rest of the body through somatic nervous system (skeletal muscles attached to bone) and autonomic nervous system, sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems (visceral muscles aka heart, lungs etc.) SNS- sensory neurons (afferent neurons {affects the brain}) transmit somatosensory information from peripheral sensory organs to CNS, allows us to feel touch etc. and motor neurons (efferent neurons {effects the body}) allow us to do things. causes the response in the body. Sympathetic nervous system is activating, fight or flight. parasympathetic nervous system is deactivating, rest and digest. Consequences of dysregulation in the human stress response- memory loss. repeated high stress level. contributor to alzheimers and aging? High levels of cortisol damage immune system. play a role in depression, EDO, brain funcion. Neuron- cell that's specialized to receiving information, integrating it and continued expression of it. Dendrite- input. Cell body- Soma. Axon-output (strands that come together). Terminal- receiver. Neurons are specialized for communication. Some neurons have myelin sheaths (made from glial cells, provides insulation fro axons, speeds up neural transmission by causing action potentials to jump {saltatory conduction}, saltatory conduction produces faster neural speed and thereby increases how quickly effects and the synapse can occur) and nodes of ranvier (space between to myelin sheaths on an axon where depolarization and action potentials (currents of electrical information) occur) Axons at rest are hyperpolarized. Interneurons-within CNS transmission perform integration and organization functions. vastly outnumber all other CNS neurons. GLIAL CELLS- neurons are supported by glial cells but they are DIFFERENT than glial cells. Outnumber neurons 10:1 in CNS. Form myelin sheaths, blood brain barrier, help supply nutrients to neurons. Many different types with different functions Oligodendrocytes (involves myelination in CNS, forms myelin around axons in brain and spinal cord) , Schwann Cells (involves myelination in PNS, wraps around peripheral nerves), Astrocytes (nutritive and support function. Draws nutrients from blood for brain and other neurons. Non myelating, CNS). Nerve- peripheral nervous system group of axons (entire set of nerves: cranial and spinal) Tract- central nervous system group of axons Drugs can be aganoists (increase NT effects) or antagonists (decreases NT effects)- depends on the drug. L-Dopa: metabolic precursor to dopamine, important to arousal, 'happiness'. Parkinsons Disease is related to the destruction of dopamine creating neurons in a particular section of the Basal Ganglia. Amephetamines, Cocaine: Produce rapid exocytosis (release) of monoamine neruotransmitters. Dopamine, Aphedrine, Antidepressants: Tricyclic inhibit NE and seratonin reuptake Selective Serotonegic Reputake Inhibitors (SSRI's) prozac. inhibit 5-HT reuptake also of norapenephrine (NE). More seratonin left, better chances for misfiring. Mono-Amine Oxidase-Inhibitors (MAO-I's) slow "enzymatic deactivation" of dopamine, seratonin, NE (taken in Visable Darkness) Ecstasy: releases massive amounts of Seratonin (5-HT) Curare: Competes with AcetylCholine at junction of motor nerve and muscle (peripheral nervous system) Antipsychotic medications: Block post synaptic dopamine (DA) receptors. GABA- main inhibitory in the NT. MAO's and SSRI's work differently. Figure 3:15 in textbook. Neurotransmitters: ACh- links motor neurons and muscles at synapse. Alzheimers have low levels of ACh. WATCH MARTINEZ EXPERIMENT ONLINE Conclusions made in this experiment are theoretical. IVs for this experiment are drugs administered. Operational experiment manipulates drug at level of IV. Theoretical experiments are about general ideas while manipulating IV. Operational is time took to find the food, theoretical is the idea of memory and mental losses due to drugs. Scopolomine caused the animals to take more time to find the goal because of postsynaptic disfunction. Interferring with ACh ability to bind with receptors, evidence for experimental amnesia. Phzsostzgmine caused an agonism of Ach-esterase causing memory enhancement allowing the animals to find the food faster. Dopamine- muscular activitz. Schizophrenia involves DA excesses. Biological Psychology II: Brain Structure and Function Overview and Goals: Review Major Structures Indicate How Structures Relate to Functions Review Methods Leading to this Knowledge Examine "Split Brain" Research Examine How Brain is Affected by "Mother's Touch" In Following Slides, we go from the Spine Up to the Cortex Overview of all areas and their interrelations: Brainstem: Brainstem "Inner Core" of Brain; Regulates Life-Support- breathing, heartbeat, blood pressure Rests Atop and Connects to Spinal Cord Contains Medulla loss of this means death.(Vital Involuntary Functions), Pons , Reticular Formation (Sleep, Arousal, Attention) . Attaches to Cerebellum (Balance/Movement) learning of fine motor skills Limbic System Figure 4.6 in textbook Above Brainstem,middle of the brain Surrounded by Cortex Critical to Motivation, Emotion, Memory Contains: Thalamus ("Sensory Relay Station") information transfer center for senses, other than smell Amygdala ("Aggression and Fear-Anxiety Center") Hippocampus (Memory Formation) Jimmy from The Man who... can't form new memories. Retrograde Amnesia. Karsicov Syndrome (so much drinking, Russian disease), Destroyed mammalary bodies that connect to hippo. Therefore, changed the memory tract and didn't allow him to form new memories. Basal Ganglia (movement and, via nucleus accumbens, reward) Parkinsons is partly a destroying of this. Hypothalamus (Regulates Temperature, Hunger, Activity of ANS (autonomic nervous system), hormone release via pituitary, site of "pleasure center" ) Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex frontal front temporal sides parietal back of front, above occipital back Note Specialization and Localization of Functions in Cerebral Cortex Functions are "Represented" in Specific Brain Areas, as follows: Motor Cortex,, ribbon of tissue in the back of frontal lobe, word is pronounced Somatosensory Cortex,, directly behind motor cortex, Broca's Area (Language Production/Speaking) within lower frontal, Wernicke's Area (Language Reception/Understanding) within lower rear temoporal, can't understand what is said to them, Auditory/"musical" Cortex, somewhat connected to Angular gyrus which transforms visual representations of words. Visual Cortex. receives written words as visual stimulus Integration of Brain Areas in Complex Functioning: Example of Language Processing Larson's Parody of William Penfields' Pioneering Research Split Brain Video Clip Alan Alda video about Joe who's corpus collosum was cut in order to fix epileptic problems. Severed the ties and communication between left and right hemispheres.Left hemisphere is specialized in language and perception of parts rather than wholes. face vs objects making face. shown on left side, seen by right as face. shown on right side seen by left as objects. Touch and Brain Development Video What is the IV?: Human touch of premature babies, 45 minutes a day for 10 days What are theThree DV's in Tiffany Field's Experiment: 1) weight gain 2) motor activity 3) more alert, better cognitive development Note how this is a "Repeated Measures" Experiment: done at discharge as well as at 8 months. Results shown both time that human touch helped premature babies. ...
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