Fall_2006_personalit - Introduction to Personality Psychopathology Stress and Health and Stress-Management Personality and Social Psychology A

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Personality, Psychopathology, Stress and Health, and Stress-Management Personality and Social Psychology: A relationship of mutual advantage (The main journal is called JPSP!) Social Psychology Emphasizes: the role of the social situation Personality Psychology Emphasizes: the role of the individual dispositions in people "We are all, as Byron put it, differently organized. We each move within the restraints of our temperament and live up only partially to its possibilities"--p. 210, Jamison (An Unquiet Mind) What IS Personality?--2 Dimensions: 1) Surface Dimension Etymology: Persona as surface mask playing roles and pretending What IS Surface? impression management; showing people who we want to be social role enactment; role playing behavioral responsiveness to environmental cues; ego and consciousness; etc. so much of what we do is because of unconscious choices. The ego manages the unconscious choices of the ID to respond to the demands of the superego. 2) Core Dimension What lies beneath the surface? What motivates/drives the persona? What is the "Inner Core"? Freud says that the core is the inner conscious, the ID. Different theories see personality differently. Personality "traits" are individual differences: a trait is a stable dispositional characteristic which reflects the "individual's distinct and relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviors" consistent over periods of time. Within change there's stability. Traits Pre-dispose - Bring spice to life. Traits predispose different types of cognitive, affective, and interpersonal behavior; they predispose individual persons to have uniquely different experiences of self and other From Traits to Diagnosable Disorders: DSM-IV's Perspective on Normal and Abnormal/Psychopathological Dimensions of Personality Traits DSM-IV stands for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (4th Edition). It is the standardized nomenclature of psychopathology used in the business of mental health in North America. The text used in America for diagnosis of disorders. DSM-IV definition: "Traits are enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts" Personality disorders are axis 2 disorders. A personality disorder is "an enduring pattern of inner experience and behavior that has 5 characteristics: deviates markedly from the expectations of the individual's culture, is pervasive and inflexible, this disordered traits are expressed across various situations. They can't seem to not express their traits in a variety of situations. has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood, is stable over time, and leads to either significant personal distress or impairment in social-occupational role functioning." they have consequences Example: Antisocial Personality Disorder- people affected enjoy doing bad things, aggressive, break rules, don't have empathy, fighter, irresponsible, impulsive, sociopathic. Not personally distressed but others see them as incredibly impaired. Thus Personality Disorders are maladaptive, inflexible clusters and patterns of specific traits--evident by the time of early adulthood-the result of which is to cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning Video Examples of Axis II DSM-IV Personality Disordered Condition: What traits do you notice in the following Case? Take some notes on your observations: DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria for Narcissistic Personality Disorder Core Definition of the Disorder: "A pervasive pattern of grandiosity (in fantasy or behavior), need for admiration, and lack of empathy, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by 5 or more of following: 1) grandiose sense of self-importance 2) preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love 3) believes he/she is special and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people 4) requires excessive admiration 5) has sense of self-entitlement, i.e., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations 6) is interpersonally exploitative 7) lacks empathy: is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others 8) is often envious of others or believes others are envious of him/her 9) shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes Schizotypal Personality Disorder can develop into schizophrenia. depersonalization and derealization. She doesn't seem like herself and she doesn't seem or feel quite real, but she knows that's not right. She's socially isolated, doesn't leave her apt. Ideas (or delusions, but not at this point in this case) of reference (?). Magical thinking (clairvoyance). Psychology Encompasses Multiple Perspectives on the Nature of Personality "Dispositions" or "Traits." A few of these are: Cognitive/Social Learning (consider Bandura's perspective on SelfEfficacy): well researched personality trait where individuals differ in the degree to which they believe that they can control what happens to them. Partly comes from modeling. Psychoanalysis: the ego and the mechanisms of defense. Egostrength. Humanistic: Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. Humanistic psychologists. Self efficacious behavior is a step in the direction of self actualization. Hierarchy of needs. Psychobiology (amplified in following section): personality is all about genetics and have everything to do with what you're born with and little to do with what has happened to you. Example: Psychobiological Construction of Traits (cartoon example follows: the beauty, comedy and tragedy of the genetics of personality) (turn out to be the same person...) "Separated at birth, the Malifert twins meet accidentally" Data on Psychobiological Perspectives 1) Twin Studies anchor Heritability Estimates there is truth that there is biology involved, but it is moderate and not everything. MZ Twins Concordances > DZ Twins Concordances 2) Heritability Estimates: 40-60% of population differences in diverse personality traits (achievement, aggression, emotional well being, stressreactivity, shyness, etc.) are estimated to be attributable to genetic differences among individuals (remainder due to environment + measurement error) Big-5 Heritability Data in Next Slide are from Gazzaniga and Heatherton Fig 12.9: The Psychometric/Trait/Individual Differences Perspective is a largely descriptive enterprise: while rooted in scientific principles of measurement (standardization, reliability, validity), no overarching explanatory perspectives are prominent Instead of explanation, most of these systems purport to be useful in describing core features of persons Standardized, reliable and valid description leads to useful prediction Several Major Systems of Personality Trait Description Exist, each of which emphasizes different numbers of core traits we'll look at only two of these systems: Eysenk's two factor model and the "Big-5" A Hierarchical View of Eysenk's Model (fig.12.5 G and H second edition): Eysenck Originally Posited Three "Superordinate" Personality Traits: 1) Emotional Stability v. Emotional Instability (or, Emotional Stability v. Neuroticism) "There is a thin line between what is considered zany and what is thought to be--a ghastly but damning word--'inappropriate,' and only a sliverish gap exists between being thought intense, or a bit volatile, and being dismissively labeled `unstable.'" (p. 202, Kay Jamison) 2) Extraversion/Introversion Next Slide Provides Visual Representation of the two-factor version of Eysenck's contribution to Personality Psychology: Circle picture model. The inner quadrant of the Eysenk model shows an Ancient Greek Typology that divided people into four types: melancholic (moody and withdrawn) unstable, introverted choleric (irritable and outgoing) unstable extroverted sanguine (stable and outgoing) stable and extroverted phlegmatic (stable and withdrawn) stable and introverted The "Big Five" (each trait exists on a high/low scale) is perhaps the most dominant current psychometric measurement perspective in personality psychology factor analysis takes an array of information and reduces it to underlying mathematical dimensions. The following slide describes the poles (High vs. Low on each trait) of the Big-5: High Neuroticism emotional instability Low Non-neurotic, emotionally stable Extroversion happy IntrovertedOpenness ClosedAgreeableness DisagreeableConscientiousness organized unconscientious Think "CANOE" to remember; thanks to Linda! :) Table 12.2 2nd Ed Psychometric Research on Big-Five: Stability/Reliability: Neuroticism 6 months- .87 6 years- .83 Extraversion 6 months- .91 6 years- .82 Openness 6 months- .86 6 years-.82 Conscientiousness Increases with Time n Fig. 12.14 2nd Predictive Value/Validity: self-report data correlate with perceptions of others- tend to be consistent with the thoughts of others. Summary Points On Traits Many systems of trait description exist, each emphasizing different features of trait structure Each system describes both surface and core features of personality The Big Five is currently the most reliable and well-validated system of trait description; it builds upon Eysenck's classic model The psychopathological dimensions of traits are addressed on axis II of DSM-IV What is "Stress"? Some Stress-Health Models: Coronary Heart Disease Model Catastrophes, Major life events, Microstressors (hassles), Type A personality (HOSTILITY, time urgent, disagreeable) --> Stress --------> Unhealthy behaviors, Physiological reactivity--------> Coronary heart Disease Immunological Effects of Stress and Negative Emotionality Negative emotional states------> Stress hormones, unhealthy behaviors-------> Weakened immune system-----> Illness But what produces negative emotionality? Stressors? Personality Traits? Both +? Hans Selye distinguished "Stressors" From "Stress" Selye Pioneered Stress Research in the 1950's, examining its role in health and disease Selye Video: Selye's Distinctions: A Stressor is: "a stimulus-event that produces a stress response" things that are 'out there' or 'outside' Where are our "stressors"? External stressors: e.g., loss of job, relationship problems, classes not going well... Internal stressors: e.g., chronic self criticism/depressive thinking/social anxiety/hostility etc (i.e., unstable emotionality or "neuroticism"), chronic circulating stress-hormones (dysregulated HPA Axis) Stress is: "the nonspecific response of the organism to any pressure or demand" Selye's "General Adaptation Syndrome" (GAS): 3 phases of physiological stress-response (note that multiple neurobiologic and hormonal response processes are mobilized, activated, and engaged for various lengths of time): Alarm- sympathetic nervous system, high adrenaline, HPA axis, release or cortisol and stress hormones. mental or emotional freak out. fight or flight. Resistance- coping. Deal with whatever it is Exhaustion- body gives in to stress and stressors, becomes overwhelmed and worn out. So, in Selye's view stress is the total response of your organism (mind and body) to whatever stressors you experience But I'm arguing that our self-produced behavior (responses) constitute actual stressors, too, so the inner/outer boundry dissolves at times That said, some stressors clearly originate externally and produce objective physiologic consequences: Objective Physiology of Stress in 3rd Graders: Kids in noisy environments have higher levels of cortisol and norapenephrine than those in quiet environments Richard Lazarus' Distinction Physiological Stress is well-exemplified in Hans Selye's classical description of the General Adaptation Syndrome (and the 3rd grader study) Psychological Stress can be defined as an aversive state of arousal triggered by the perception that an event threatens our ability to cope effectively Psychological Stress is objective and subjective The objective element: "aversive state of arousal" The subjective element: "the perception that ....." Psychological stress in fact involves many of the same biological processes as physiological stress (hormonal secretions, sympathetic nervous system activation, neurotransmitter responses in the brain, levels of motor tension, behavioral and cognitive arousal etc.) In psychological stress, multiple negative emotional responses (anger, anxiety, fright, sadness, depression, guilt, shame, etc.) to diverse situational demands are generated in response to the personal meanings derived from an individual's cognitive appraisal All Life-Events Represent Potential Stressors and are "Appraised" 3 kinds of appraisals are possible: Harm (a damaging event has occurred) Threat (a potential future harm is appraised as approaching) Challenge (events appraised as opportunities rather than threats) Harm and Threat Appraisals induce psychological stress Remember Sensation and Perception? Distal Stimulus (event "out there")-----> Proximal Stimulus (event "in-the-brain/as-perceived") Perception AppraisalEmotions/Coping Coping, and negative emotions, and "stress-reactivity" generally depend heavily on: 1) the personality (cognitive-style and trait organization) of the perceiver 2) the non-personality produced mental and behavioral habits of the perceiver (stress-management styles and skills) Two Classes of "Objective" Stressors: 1) Major Life Events 2) Daily Hassles Holmes and Rahe' developed the "Social Readjustment Rating Scale" (SRRS) as an objective checklist of Major Life Events: Death of Spouse = 100 Divorce = 73 Jail/Prison term = 63 Death of close family member = 63 Marriage = 50 Loss of job = 47 ... Death of close friend = 36 Child Leaving Home Change in Status @ Work Transfer to a new school Minor law violations (ticket) = 29 = 29 =20 = 11 MLE's have objective empirical status (figure 16.9) the more events from that list, the higher the probability of becoming depressed Still, Subjectivity Matters: The Impact of Major Life Events Depends on Individual Differences in: 1) Appraisal - how you see what occurs to you (scary vs exciting) 2) Coping (Problem Solving Approaches, Style of Emotional Coping) Consider different persons responses to: Divorce Sudden Unemployment Disease-onset What is a "Daily Hassle" and how is it a "stressor"? Class generated List of Daily Hassles: early class, exams, roommate problems, friend's stress, Research shows Objective Effects: people with large #'s of hassles are more emotionally distressed Stressful Life Events may affect us through the daily hassles they produce "Stress-reactivity" is an individual difference factor, a predisposing personality "Trait" some people may be more disposed to perceive events as hassles some people are more disposed to experience major stressful events Two examples: 1) optimism the trait of "optimism" is associated with the following empirical findings: less illness symptoms in college and beyond more active approach to stress and problem solving higher levels of academic success and performance more likely to complete treatment programs for alcoholism more likely to make quick, full recovery from coronary bypass surgery Immune system functioning of optimists is higher Optimists respond to stressors with smaller increases in blood pressure Cardiac patients with minimal optimism (higher "hopelessness") have higher rates of new heart attacks and are twice as likely to die than persons with low hopelessness (as seen in next figure): high levels of hopelessness are associated with a higher likelihood of dying. 2) Hardiness e.g., "hardiness" is a trait of people who demonstrate: commitment (sense of purpose/involvement with work and family) challenge (openness to new experiences and desire to embrace them) control (belief that one has power to influence important future outcomes--compare this to "self-efficacy" and "helplessness") Appraisal of Challenge and Control: Stressful event (tough math test) -----> Threat (Yikes this is beyond me)-----> Panic , freeze up OR challenge (I've got to apply all I know) ---> Aroused, focus hardy people experience less stressful hassles hardy people also respond to threat and challenge with less physiological stress! For Example, the Next Slide shows the effect of the trait "hardiness" on one short term physiological measure--heart rate-- in a threat experiment low hardiness gets a higher heart rate under stress and takes longer to return to normal Optimism and Hardiness reflect Low Stress-Reactivity Persons with Right Prefrontal Cortical Activation (pessimistic, helpless persons?) have higher Stress-Reactivity Kids whose Moms show lower-quality MCB's have higher stressreactivity High Stress-reactivity is correlated with diverse symptoms of psychopathology, mental disorder, personal distress, and physical health Two Non-Exclusive Views of Stress and Stress-Management: Stress is both a Response and a Process of Adjustment View One: Stress is a Response (or a set of responses; it's an endstate): Physiological and Psychological Stress-Responses (stressreactions) develop in relation to challenging events (stressors) experienced by individuals. These Stress-Reactions often become chronically present and may include: Physiological production of stress-hormones (e.g., adrenaline, cortisol) Negative cognitive appraisals (perception of harm and threat) Behavioral habits non-conducive to health (patterns of sleep, eating, drug and alcohol use, physical activity, maladaptive recruitment of social support) Emotional habits/tendencies toward emotional instability- Neuroticism/over-reactivity (chronic irritability, anger, guilt, worry) View Two: Stress is a PROCESS (a developmental unfolding, in constant flux) that can be managed to promote health: Stress-reactions are not static! They are continually, dynamically produced as functions of cognitive re-appraisal, behavioral coping, and emotional re-processing. This process view acknowledges the dynamic consequences of Stress-Management (or Stress-management-deficiency/failure) This "Process View" recognizes that we appraise all events, and in so-appraising we express core personality traits (levels of optimism, hardiness, stress-reactivity, emotional stability, agreeableness, etc.) Personality traits that create vulnerability to stress-reactions {e.g. low self-efficacy, low optimism, high pessimism, high neuroticism, high stress-reactivity} can be modulated* with concentrated focus on behavioral and emotional health (balanced living through exercise and intake; healthy relationships; consistent efforts to examine and modify negative mental habits of appraisal and emotional processing) *modulate One entry found for modulate. Main Entry: modulate Pronunciation: 'm-j&-"lAtFunction: verbInflected Form(s): -lated; -lating Etymology: Latin modulatus, past participle of modulari to play, sing, from modulus small measure, rhythm, diminutive of modus measure -- more at METE M transitive senses1 : to tune to a key or pitch2 : to adjust to or keep in proper measure or proportion : TEMPER T intransitive senses1 : to play or sing with modulation2 : to pass from one musical key into another by means of intermediary chords or notes that have some relation to both keys3 : to pass gradually from one state to another Both Psychotherapy and Meditation target re-appraisal of our experiences, along with developing new coping skills Therapy and Stress-Management target positive emotional modulation Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction Program--MBSRP Mindfully Notice your sensory-physical experience: Pleasant Events Unpleasant Events What thoughts attend the experiences? Practice-Actualize Mindful Attitudes in daily life: Acceptance Trust Patience Non-judgment Letting-Go Beginner's Mind Non-Striving (but not goal-less-ness!!) The MBSRP was what the Davison et al (2003) participants were exposed to. Functionally, "Stress-Management" may strengthen positive healthpromoting personality traits while weakening, or holding in check-- through cognitive re-appraisal, and positive coping behaviors (breathing, reality testing)--their negative health-inhibiting counterparts (self-efficacy, hardiness, level of optimism-pessimism, emotional stability, etc) Practicing seeing events as challenges, and the self as capable of managing ability to cope, is likely to reduce stress Even persons high "stress-reactivity" can reduce stress through managing their own behavior and emotional reactions High stress can become lower stress, and even positive challenge, if attitudes and habits of behavior and emotional processing will permit. {with a little help from our friends} So Stress-Management targets the positive modulation of personality dispositions Remember: personality dispositions were defined earlier as "individual's distinct and relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, feelings, motives, and behaviors" Appraisal modulates stress through "thoughts" (and emotions) Coping modulates stress through "behaviors" (and emotions) Model of Stress and Health Processes ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 04/25/2008 for the course PSY 202 taught by Professor Henriques during the Fall '08 term at Wisconsin.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online