Drugs and Ergogenic Aids Midterm 1

Drugs and Ergogenic Aids Midterm 1 - Athletic Performance...

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Athletic Performance Energy Systems The muscles use only certain fuels to operate: immediate sources of energy o ATP o Creatine Phosphate In a sprint (1) 0-20sec, 100-120% of max capacity Highest intensity reliance w/ ATP/CP in muscles (2) 30sec-2min Most energy comes from Anaerobic metabolism (glycolysis) o Glucose -> lactic acid: causes fatigue/causes muscles to stop functioning Taking something that neutralizes lactic acid may be beneficial NaCO3 has been shown to increase run times in the ½ mile by 2-3sec (3) > 4-5 min < 100% max capacity o Aerobic metabolism: dependant on O2 supply o Anything that enhances O2 will theoretically increase performance Increase RBC’s Substances that make RBC’s give up O2 more readily What physiological system helps? There is something in the CNS that keeps us from performing at our peak There could be a substance theoretically that could increase this threshold for maximum performance o Amphetamines were first to the scene, after WW2 o In football nasal expanders are used, though they are not helpful except for their placebo affect (1) Cardiovascular o Increasing RBC’s will help (2) Pulmonary o There is no evidence that lung capacity is a limiting factor, though people unfortunately tend to think otherwise (3) Muscular o More muscles is almost always beneficial across all sports
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(4) Endocrine o Many performance enhancing drugs are replacements/enhancers of endocrine hormones Risk vs. Reward The rewards are often so enormous that people generally do not think about their health when taking performance enhancers In toxicology, it is known that “the dose makes the poison” Certain substances, in small amounts, are benign History of doping Performance-enhancing has been going on since the Greeks Doping: any method to improve performance Concept developed mid 1990’s Olympics: anything you do or take, that gives an unfair advantage, is illegal Pseudoephedrine o Taken by a gymnast in the 2000 olympics, disqualified and stripped of gold medal Terms Ergogenic: improves performance Ergolytic: decreases performance Training hard everyday does have negative, short term effects Lecture 3 History of doping o NCAA initiated drug testing in 1986 o Drug testing in horse races began in early 1900’s Early history o The ancients learned empirically of the anabolic and androgenic function of the testes by obsercing the effects of castration on domesticated animals o Long ago, in pre-historic tribs, organotherapy: eating of organs of animals/humans to improve performance Tribes would eat the heart of a kill (animal/person), for bravery The testes were eaten for virility, to gain anabolic effects The brain was eaten for intelligence o There have been different ways across history that people have tried to improve performance
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Through diet, stimulants Norsman ate bufotein made from mushrooms, neruopseudoepedrine
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This note was uploaded on 02/27/2008 for the course EXSC 250 taught by Professor Girandola during the Spring '08 term at USC.

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Drugs and Ergogenic Aids Midterm 1 - Athletic Performance...

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