ComputerOrg-1 - 1 Advanced Topics Advanced Topics...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Advanced Topics Advanced Topics Fundamentals in Computer Organization Introduction to VHDL 2 Register Register Data In (N bits) Load Data Out (N bits) Output Enable N N (we have Tri-state outputs) Basic Building Blocks (1) Basic Building Blocks (1) 3 Basic Building Blocks (2) Basic Building Blocks (2) Shift Register Data In Load Data Out Output Enable N N Shift Controls (left/right/no shift) Shift Register 4 Basic Building Blocks (4) Basic Building Blocks (4) Arithmetic-Logic Unit N N A B ALU Operation N Flags (carry out, overflow, etc.) Result Keep in mind: The ALU is a combinational circuit. 5 Buses Buses Data Lines (two-way) N Address Lines (one-way) M Control Lines (mix of 1 and 2-way lines) C A shared collection of wires for exchanging data, with some defined rules Rule 1: Only one device can write to a bus at any time Rule 2: Multiple devices can read the bus at any time Rule 3: There is usually a bus protocol that is followed strictly by all devices sharing the bus 6 3 Registers Sharing a Bus 3 Registers Sharing a Bus N M C Register 1 Register 2 Register 3 OE1 OE2 OE3 LOAD1 LOAD2 LOAD3 Only one of these OEs can be true at once Several of these can be true at once for input OEs and LOADs generally determined by the control lines To write, OE must be enabled. To read, LOAD must be enabled. Only one can write to the data line 7 Register-to-Register Data Transfer Register-to-Register Data Transfer N OE1 M C Register 1 Register 2 Register 3 OE2 OE3 LOAD1 LOAD2 LOAD3 Register 1 Register 3 Only one can write to the data line, but more than one registers can receive inputs at the same time 8 Buses & Registers to RAM Buses & Registers to RAM Random Access Memory M A R Memory Address Register (store address here) M B R Memory Buffer Register (exchange data here) Request (Chip Select) Read/Write Wait Memory Control Signals Slow RAMs usually ask Processor to wait 9 Note: This is not the only Note: This is not the only way to build a computer, way to build a computer, but is the most common one. but is the most common one. I want to build a computer! I want to build a computer! Basic Idea #1: The Stored Program Computer Concept This is an instruction-controlled digital system with a memory A sequence of instructions are stored in memory This set of instructions constitute the program that defines the machines behavior The same memory also holds the data needed to execute the program The same memory also holds the outputs produced by the program, as well as any intermediate results The memory is large (ideally, infinite) 10 The processor executes the following infinite loop forever: Step 1. Fetch the next instruction from memory to a register The register is usually called the instruction register (IR). The address of the next instruction is usually stored in a register called the program counter (PC) ....
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ComputerOrg-1 - 1 Advanced Topics Advanced Topics...

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