# Lec2 - Chapter 2 Exploring Data with Graphs and Numerical...

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Agresti/Franklin Statistics, 1 of 63 Chapter 2 Exploring Data with Graphs and Numerical Summaries Learn …. The Different Types of Data The Use of Graphs to Describe Data The Numerical Methods of Summarizing Data

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Agresti/Franklin Statistics, 2 of 63 Section 2.1 What are the Types of Data?
Agresti/Franklin Statistics, 3 of 63 In Every Statistical Study: Questions are posed Characteristics are observed

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Agresti/Franklin Statistics, 4 of 63 Characteristics are Variables A Variable is any characteristic that is recorded for subjects in the study
Agresti/Franklin Statistics, 5 of 63 Variation in Data The terminology variable highlights the fact that data values vary .

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Agresti/Franklin Statistics, 6 of 63 Example: Students in a Statistics Class Variables: Age GPA Major Smoking Status
Agresti/Franklin Statistics, 7 of 63 Data values are called observations Each observation can be: Quantitative Categorical

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Agresti/Franklin Statistics, 8 of 63 Categorical Variable Each observation belongs to one of a set of categories Examples: Gender (Male or Female) Religious Affiliation (Catholic, Jewish, …) Place of residence (Apt, Condo, …) Belief in Life After Death (Yes or No)
Agresti/Franklin Statistics, 9 of 63 Quantitative Variable Observations take numerical values Examples: Age Number of siblings Annual Income Number of years of education completed

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Agresti/Franklin Statistics, 10 of 63 Graphs and Numerical Summaries Describe the main features of a variable For Quantitative variables : key features are center and spread For Categorical variables : key feature is the percentage in each of the categories
Agresti/Franklin Statistics, 11 of 63 Quantitative Variables Discrete Quantitative Variables and Continuous Quantitative Variables

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Agresti/Franklin Statistics, 12 of 63 Discrete A quantitative variable is discrete if its possible values form a set of separate numbers such as 0, 1, 2, 3, …
Statistics, 13 of 63 Examples of discrete variables

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Lec2 - Chapter 2 Exploring Data with Graphs and Numerical...

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