Chapter_16[1]

Chapter_16[1] - Acids and bases definitions Arrhenius acids...

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Acids and bases   1 Acids and bases – definitions Arrhenius acids and bases Acid = creates H + ions Base = creates OH - ions Bronsted-Lowrey Acid = a substance that can donate H + to another substance Base = a substance that can accept H + HCl H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) H 2 O NaOH Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) H 2 O Arrhenius definition is too simple HCl (aq) + NH 3 (aq) NH 4 + (aq) + Cl - (aq) base acid
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Acids and bases   2 General properties Acids: Must be able to generate H + E.g. ionics (HNO 3 ), strongly polar bonds (e.g. H-Cl, RCOOH) H + ions: H + is just a proton Exists as H 3 O + in water ( hydronium ion ) Bases: Must have lone pair to bond with H + HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Cl - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) H O H + H + H O H H + base acid
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Acids and bases   3 Conjugate acids and bases Conjugate base of an acid substance formed after acid donates H + Conjugate base is a base (can accept H + ) Conjugate acid-base pair HA & A - + Conjugate acid of a base Substance formed after base accepts H + Conjugate acid is an acid (can donate H + ) HA (aq) + B (aq) A - (aq) + HB + (aq) acid base conjugate base conjugate acid
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Acids and bases   4 Autoprotolysis of water Water has properties of both acids and bases Amphoteric = a substance that can behave as an acid or a base Autoprotolysis reaction: K w = [H 3 O + ][OH - ] = 1 x 10 -14 (at 25 o C) Equilibrium lies far to the left Applications: Can use equilibrium expression to get [H 3 O + ] from [OH - ] [H 3 O + ] = (1 x 10 -14 )/[OH - ] H 2 O (l) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH - (aq)
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Acids and bases   5 Strengths of acids and bases Measured via ability to produce or take up H 3 O + Qualitative scale (Chapter 4, Table 4.2) Strong acid/base is a strong electrolyte Dissociates virtually completely Weak acid/base is a weak electrolyte Dissociates only partially
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Acids and bases   6 Acid-base equilibria
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Chapter_16[1] - Acids and bases definitions Arrhenius acids...

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