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Chapter_15[1] - Chemical equilibrium initially[A]0[B = 0 A...

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Chemical equilibrium   1 Chemical equilibrium concentration [A] [B] “steady state” initially [A] 0 [B] = 0 A B; rate = k f [A] later [A] t < [A] 0 [B] t > 0 A B; rate = k f [A] B A; rate = k r [B] even later [A] t << [A] 0 [B] t >> 0 A B; rate = k f [A] B A; rate = k r [B]
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Chemical equilibrium   2 Chemical equilibrium Condition when no further changes in concentration are observed Changes still taking place (e.g. A B) But countered by opposite process (e.g. B A) occurring at the same rate Equilibrium constant (K) At equilibrium rates of forward and reverse reactions are equal A B rate A B = rate B A k f [A] = k r [B] k f k r = [B] [A] = constant
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Chemical equilibrium   3 Equilibrium expressions Equilibrium constant (K) Ratio of [products] to [reactants] is constant at equilibrium For a general reaction: aA + bB cC + dD Position of equilibrium [products] > [reactants] when K is much greater than 1 “far to the right” [products] < [reactants] when K is much less than 1 “far to the left” K = [C] c [D] d [A] a [B] b = k forward k reverse
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Chemical equilibrium   4 Rate laws – rxn’s with fast initial step Rate laws: depend upon concentration of reactants only
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