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Unformatted text preview: Management Principles in Sport Management Jason Sosa Definition and History Goal of sports managers: To get workers to do what the manager wants them to do, in an efficient and costeffective manner Management theory evolved through two phases: scientific management and the human relations movement Today: Use of organizational behavior; the study and application of the human side of management and organizations Definition and History
Human Relations Scientific Management Hawthorne studies: Taylorism Social factors in the Workers should not be workplace were doing the same job important, and job different ways, but instead satisfaction and output in the "one best way" depended more on cooperation and a (most efficient way) feeling of worth Manager can get workers Mary Parker Follett: to perform job the "best Effective, motivational way" by enticing them with management existed in economic rewards partnership and cooperation Functional Areas Sport managers must perform in a number of functional areas and execute various activities in fulfilling the demands of their jobs. Difficult because organizations are constantly evolving In order to run an organization successfully managers should rely on these four functional areas..... Four Functional Areas Planning Leading Organizing Evaluating Planning Defining organizational goals and determining the appropriate means by which to achieve these desired goals. Determine a course of action for the sport organization. Following the mission statement and stated goals. Organizational plans should change and evolve and not be viewed as set in stone. Two Types of Planning Short term Plans Goals that are expected to be achieved in the next few months. Short time frame Quick and easily accessible goals Long term Plans Goals that can be reached over a longer period of time 510 years in to the future of the organization Organizing Putting plans into action!! The manager determines what types of jobs need to be performed and who will be responsible for doing these jobs Develop position descriptions & qualifications Staffing Organizational Chart Staffing Must be well developed Identifies various positions & responsibilities Recruiting Orientation & Training Continual development of staff members Leading
"Action" part of the management process. Delegation: Involves assigning responsibility and accountability for results to employees. Managers must manage any differences or changes that may take place within the organization. Managers handle conflicts, work problems, or communication difficulties; stimulate creativity; and motivate employees. Evaluating Measuring and ensuring progress toward organizational objectives. Progress is accomplished by the employees effectively carrying out their duties. Establish reporting systems, develop performance standards, compare employee performance to set standards, and design reward systems. Important Skills for Managers People Skills Strong Communication Skills Manage Diversity Written Oral Managing Technology Organizational Politics Manage Change Motivator Takes Initiative People Skills Sport management industry is a "people intensive" industry. Interaction with all types of personalities. Must be able to treat all people fairly, Must be able to present yourself in a professional manner Don't be fake...be personal! ethically, and with respect. Communication Knowing how to say something to another person is equally as important as knowing what to say to another person. First Impressions are EVERYTHING! Answering each question professionally and courteously wins a lifelong fan. Sport managers must be able to speak articulately. Must be able to WRITE! Managing Diversity Diversity: Differences between individuals, including age, race, gender, sexual orientation, disability, education, and social background. Recognizing current issues in labor laws is important. Change Employment process Discrimination against women & minorities Recruitment, screening, selection, retention, promotion, and ending employment. Managing Technology Usage of technology in the sport industry (e.g., customer data collection and advanced ticket systems) Usage of technology in the workplace (e.g., video conferencing and multimedia presentations) Online surveys used for data collection Identify special issues in technology Decision Making Need to have a comprehensive understanding of the opportunity or problem, and engage in a decisionmaking process that will lead to an effective decision. Generate ideas and alternatives Set evaluation measures Identify & implement the best possible decision Decision Making Participative decision making: Employees or members of the organization participate in the actual decisionmaking process Ideas need to be generated, there is a great deal of information to share, alternative perspectives are needed, and the fairness of the decision is highly valued Executive Decision Should be administered when time is short and decision is needed to be made immediatley. Only executive of managers should make these decisions Liability is on the decision maker Organizational Politics Use of power or some other resource outside of the formal definition of a person's job to get a preferred outcome. Four types of political tactics used: Coalitions, Outside experts Links/networks Controlling information. Organizational Politics Formal Leaders These are persons in "titled" positions. Hold the most organizational power Informal Leaders Possess power within the organization through knowledge, tenure, or association May be very influential in decision making Managing Change People tend to resist change for a number reasons. Emotional Reasons Economic Status Organizational Status Social Status Skill & Competence Reasons Managing Change
Managers should: Plan for resistance and provide additional training and communications. Select priorities for change. publicize successes to build momentum and support. Involve employees at every stage. Make sure top management sponsors and is fully committed to the agreed implementation Motivation Critical for everyone to be on the same page when it comes to working to accomplish organizational goals and objectives. Many theories: Hierarchy of needs Two factor ideas Expectancy theory Equity theory Appropriate motives and values; attractive and consistent jobs; defined work goals; provide resources and supportive environments; reinforce performance; harmonize. Taking Initiative Initiative enables you to learn about a different aspect of the sport organization you are working with. Allows you to meet and interact with people outside of the office you work in, thus increasing your network. Shows your employer your commitment to working in the industry. Current Issues Diversity: Perform selfstudy on organization to evaluate effectiveness of recruiting and employment of women, racial/ethnic minorities, people with disabilities, and so forth. Managing technology: Understand how expanding technology will improve customer relations and service. International sports management: Must be aware that domestic models of sport governance cannot be unilaterally imposed on other cultures. New management theories Empowerment Encourage employees to take initiative Allow employees to make decisions on their own, with the appropriate information The employee feels more a part of the organization Emotional Intelligence Rational thought is promoted. Time to make correct and well advised decisions Emotional hastiness will not produce the best motivators ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/23/2008 for the course KINE 217 taught by Professor Sagas during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.
- Spring '08